Skip to main content

Concentrations of Selected Elements in Liver Tissue of Grey Wolves (Canis lupus) from Serbia

Abstract

The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species and a top predator in the ecosystems that it inhabits. Considering its role in food webs, wolves may be exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Therefore liver samples from 28 legally hunted wolves were analyzed for concentrations of 16 elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The Mann–Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the genders only for Li, and there were no differences between individuals caught in different years. The majority of statistically significant correlations between element levels were positive, except for three cases. Compliance with several criteria for suitable bioindicator organisms imply that wolves may serve for monitoring environmental contamination.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Becker PR (2000) Concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Alaska artic marine mammals. Mar Pollut Bull 40:819–829

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Biladžić N, Dežđek D, Sedak M, Đokić M, Šimić B, Rudan N, Brstilo M, Lisicin T (2012) Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:94–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chapron G, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC, von Arx M et al (2014) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517–1519

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ćirović D, Gizajewska A, Jovanović V, Penezić A, Milenković M, Vujošević M, Blagojević J(2015) Concentration of selected trace elements in golden jackal (Canisaureus L., 1758) population from Serbia. Acta Zool Bulg 67:409–414

    Google Scholar 

  5. Djan M, Maletić V, Trbojević I, Popović D, Veličković N, Burazerović J, Ćirović D(2014) Genetic diversity and structuring of the grey wolf population from the Central Balkans based on the mitochondrial DNA variation. Mamm Biol 79:277–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Flaten TP, Andersen LH, Holsen AMH, Ottemo VG, Pedersen HC, Steinnes E, Lierhagen S, Jenssen BM (2008) A nationwide survey of trace elements in lynx, wolverines, wolves, and brown bears in Norway. Cell Biol Toxicol 24(Supple 1):6–7

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gall JE, Boyd RS, Rajakaruna N (2015) Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review. Environ Monit Assess 187:201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4436-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Gamberg M, Braune BM (1999) Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves (Canis lupus) from Yukon Territory. Can Sci Total Environ 243:329–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Gnamuš A, Byrne AR, Horvat M (2000) Mercury in the soil-plant-deer-predator food chain of a temperate forest in Slovenia. Environ Sci Technol 34:3337–3345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hernández-Moreno D, de la Casa Resino I, Fidalgo LE, Llaneza L, Soler Rodríguez F, Pérez-López M, López-Beceiro A (2013) Noninvasive heavy metal pollution assessment by means of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) hair from Galicia (NW Spain): a comparison with invasive samples. Environ Monit Assess 185:10421–10430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hoffmann SR, Blunck SA, Petersen KN, Jones EM et al (2010) Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentration in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northern Territories (Canada). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:481–485

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Holyan J, Boyd DK, Mack CM, Pletscher DH (2005) Longevity and productivity of three wolves, Canis lupus in the wild. Can Field Nat 119:447–448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Institute for nature conservation of Serbia (2013) Special nature reserve “Peštersko polje”, conservation proposal. Belgrade, p 127

  14. Kaczensky P, Chapron G, von Arx M, Huber D, Andrén H, Linnell J (2012) Status, management and distribution of large carnivores—bear, lynx, wolf and wolverine—in Europe, part 1. European Commission, p 72

  15. Lazarus M, Sekanović A, Orct T, Reljić S, Kusak J, Jurasović J, Huber Đ (2017) Apex predatory mammals as bioindicator species in environmental monitoring of elements in Dinaric Alps (Croatia). Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0008-0

    Google Scholar 

  16. Mann RM, Vijver MG, Peijnenburg WJGM (2011) Metals and metalloids in terrestrial systems: bioaccumulation, biomagnification and subsequent adverse effects. In: Sánchez-Bayo F, van den Brink PJ, Mann RM (eds) Ecological impacts of toxic chemicals. Bentham e-Books, pp 43–62

  17. Mech LD (1988) Longevity in wild wolves. J Mammal 69:197–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Millán J, Mateo R, Taggart MA, López-Bao JV, Viota M, Monsalve L, Camarero PR, Blázquez E, Jiménez B (2008) Levels of heavy metals and metalloids in critically endangered Iberian lynx and other wild carnivores from Southern Spain. Sci Total Environ 399:193–201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Paunović M, Ćirović D, Milenković M (2008) Status, management and conservation of large carnivores in Serbia. In Conference paper of Coexistence of large carnivores and humans: threat or benefit? pp 111–117

  20. Pérez-López M, Soler Rodríguez F, Hernández-Moreno D, Rigueira L, Fidalgo LE, López Beceiro A (2016) Bioaccumulation of cadmium, lead and zinc in liver and kidney of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from NW Spain: influence of gender and age. Toxicol Environ Chem 98:109–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Randi E (2011) Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe. Mamm Rev 41: 99–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Rodriguez JH, Wannaz ED, Salazar MJ, Pignata ML, Fangmeier A, Franzaring J (2012) Accumulation of polycyclic romatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina. Atmos Environ 55:35–42

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sergio F, Caro T, Brown D, Clucas B, Hunter J, Ketchum J, McHugh K, Hiraldo F (2008) Top predators as conservation tools: ecological rationale, assumptions, and efficacy. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:1–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Shan Y, Tysklind M, Hao F, Ouyang W, Chen S, Lin C (2013) Identification of sources of heavy metals in agricultural soils using multivariate analysis and GIS. J Soils Sediments 13:720–729

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Shore RF, Casulli A, Bologov V, Wienburg CL, Afsar A, Toyne P, Dell’Omo G (2001) Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentration in wolves (Canis lupus L. 1758) from north-west Russia. Sci Total Environ 280:45–54

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Stronen AV, Jędrzejewska B, Pertoldi C, Demontis D, Randi E, Niedziałkowska M, Pilot M, Sidorovich VE, Dykyy I, Kusak J, Tsingarska E, Kojola I, Karamanlidis AA, Ornicans A, Lobkov VA, Dumenko V, Czarnomska SD (2013) North-south differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS ONE 8(10):e76454

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Turković M, Bukumirović D, Radeka G, Mušović S (2012) Potentiality and prospects of underground coal mining in the Sjenica coal basin. Min Eng 2:115–124

    Google Scholar 

  28. Vihnanek Lazarus M, Sekovanić A, Kljaković-Gašpić Z, Orct T, Jurasović J, Kusak J, Reljić S, Huber Đ (2013) Cadmium and lead in grey wolf liver samples: optimisation of microwave-assisted digestion method. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 64:395–403

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Yilmaz AB, Sangün MK, Yağlioğlu D, Turan C (2010) Metals (major, essential to non-essential) composition of the different tissues of three demersal fish species from İskenderun Bay, Turke. Food Chem 123:410–415

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Zhou Q, Zhang J, Fu J, Shi J, Jiang G (2008) Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem. Anal Chim Acta 606:135–150

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support provided by Projects No. TR31009 and 173045, funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. The authors would like to thank dr Miroslav Nikolić and dr Ljiljana Kostić-Kravljanac for their help during heavy metal analysis, and to anonymous reviewers for providing helpful comments and suggestions that improved the quality of the paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Srđan Subotić.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Subotić, S., Višnjić-Jeftić, Ž., Penezić, A. et al. Concentrations of Selected Elements in Liver Tissue of Grey Wolves (Canis lupus) from Serbia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 99, 701–705 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2209-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ecotoxicology
  • Wolf
  • ICP-OES
  • Element concentration