Suitability of surface water of Kanjli wetland, Punjab (India) during the period of 2013–2015 was assessed for drinking, irrigation and aquatic life using a water quality index (WQI), heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and aquatic toxicity index (ATI). WQI was calculated using 14 physico-chemical parameters while HPI determination used nine heavy metals like As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. WQI revealed that Kanjli wetland contained medium quality water (irrigation and aquatic life). Cr, Cd and Co exceeded desirable limits of World Health Organization (WHO, Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011) and Indian drinking water standard (2012) during all the three seasons (monsoon, post monsoon and winter). HPI values from all sites exceeded critical pollution index value of 100 during monsoon season. Few sites were unsuitable for normal fish life as per ATI. The study recommends planned spatial, temporal and periodic monitoring of wetland using WQI and HPI to sustain good water quality (drinking, irrigation and aquatic life).
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The authors are grateful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for providing the necessary funding under Maulana Azad National Fellowship, University with Potential for Excellence and Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area. Authors are also thankful to the Emerging Life Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India for providing the necessary instrumental and laboratory facilities for the study.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Singh, N., Kaur, M. & Kaur Katnoria, J. Spatial and Temporal Heavy Metal Distribution and Surface Water Characterization of Kanjli Wetland (a Ramsar site), India Using Different Indices. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 99, 735–742 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2194-3
- Water quality indices
- Surface water