Effects of Long-Term Anthropogenic Disturbance on the Benthic Episammic Diatom Community of an Ancient, Tropical Lake
Habitat homogenization, nutrient enrichment and loss of biodiversity are broadly recognized as the consequences of human activity in aquatic systems. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) are frequently used in aquatic environmental assessment and impact monitoring, but in unique habitats dominated by endemic taxa, traditional approaches may not be appropriate. We examined the impacts of long term anthropogenic impacts upon the littoral episammic diatom community around the town of Soroako, located on Lake Matano, an ancient tropical lake. Lake Matano is located on central Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and socio-economic conditions are typical of developing nations. Although differences in nutrient concentrations were undetectable with field-based spectroscopy approaches, mean Shannon diversity was decreased in association with proximity the town-site. However, mean ß-diversity was maintained despite several decades of shoreline modification at Soroako. Elevated abundances of early-successional diatom taxa in the disturbed area drove differences between areas immediately offshore of Soroako and those farther away. These findings suggest that increased physical disturbance and TSS loads around Soroako, rather than increased nutrient loading, influenced shifts in the diatom community. These results suggest that microscopy-based biomonitoring approaches are sensitive indicators of environmental modification that could be useful in areas where access to cutting-edge analytical equipment is limited.
KeywordsDiatoms Ancient lake Environmental assessment Disturbance Lake Matano
This research was supported by a NSERC grant to GDH, a Canadian Museum of Nature RAC grant to PBH and an Ontario Graduate Scholarship to AJB. Further financial and logistical support was furnished by Vale Canada and PT Vale Indonesia. The authors are grateful to MacKenzie Waller for mapping assistance.
- Bramburger A (2010). Mechanisms regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of biological communities: insights from freshwater diatom communities. ElectronicThesesandDissertations. p. 378. http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/378
- Bramburger AJ, Haffner GD, Hamilton PB (2004). Examining the distributional patterns of the diatom flora of the Malili Lakes, Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: Poulin M. (ed) Proceedings of the 17th International Diatom Symposium, Ottawa, Canada. Biopress, Bristol, pp. 11–25Google Scholar
- Hustedt F (1939) Systematische und ökologische Untersuchungen über die Diatomeen-Flora von Java, Bali und Sumatra. Archiv f Hydrobiol 16:1–155Google Scholar
- Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1986) Bacillariophyceae. 1. Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süsswasser flora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/1. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, p. 876Google Scholar
- Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1988). Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/2. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, p. 596Google Scholar
- Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1991a) Bacillariophyceae. 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/3. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, p. 576Google Scholar
- Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1991b) Bacillariophyceae. 4. Teil: Achnanthaceae, Kritische Ergänzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae) und Gomphonema, Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis Teil 1–4. In: Ettl H, Gärtner G, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/4. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, p. 437Google Scholar
- Population Explorer (2017). Pupulation explorer beta. https://populationexplorer.com. Accessed 10 Jan 2017
- Roy D, Kelly DW, Fransen CH, Heath DD, Haffner GD (2006) Evidence of small-scale vicariance in Caridina lanceolata (Decapoda: Atyidae) from the Malili Lakes, Sulawesi. Evol Ecol Res 8:1087–1099Google Scholar
- van Bemmelen RW (1970) The geology of Indonesia. 1, A. General geology of Indonesia and adjacent archipelagoes: the East Indies, inclusive of the British part of Borneo, the Malay Peninsula, the Philippine Islands, Eastern New Guinea, Christmas Island, and the Andaman-and Nicobar Islands. Nijhoff, The HagueGoogle Scholar
- Vyverman W (1991) Diatoms from Papua New Guinea. Bibliotheca Diatomol 22:1–224Google Scholar
- Wallace AR (1902) Island life, or, the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and floras: including a revision and attempted solution of the problem of geological climates. Macmillan and Company, LondonGoogle Scholar