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Exposure, Effects and Absorption of Lead in American Woodcock (Scolopax minor): A Review

  • Amanda D. French
  • Warren C. Conway
  • Jaclyn E. Cañas-Carrell
  • David M. Klein
Focused Review

Abstract

Due to long term declines of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) and widespread distribution of environmentally available lead (Pb) throughout their geographic range, it is important to assess if Pb exposure is a potential contributor to these declines. Woodcock are exposed to Pb through various environmental sources and are known to exhibit relatively high bone-Pb concentrations. Absorption of Pb by birds, and woodcock specifically, is not well understood. Some studies show that interactions among calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and vitamin D levels may play an important role in Pb absorption. Therefore, when future Pb studies are performed for woodcock, and other birds, interactions among these elements should be considered. For example, these interactions are relevant in the acquisition and mobilization of calcium in female birds during egg development and shell calcification. These factors should be considered to understand potential mechanisms of Pb exposure, Pb absorption, and subsequent Pb toxicity to birds in general, and woodcock specifically. This review discusses Pb exposure routes, effects of Pb toxicity, and the distribution of Pb in American woodcock and identifies areas for future research in woodcock and other avian species.

Keywords

American woodcock (Scolopax minorLead (Pb) Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) Zinc (Zn) Iron (Fe) Vitamin D 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge research assistantship funding from the Department of Environmental Toxicology of Texas Tech University.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda D. French
    • 1
  • Warren C. Conway
    • 2
  • Jaclyn E. Cañas-Carrell
    • 1
  • David M. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human HealthTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of Natural Resources ManagementTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

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