Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical endocrine disruptor, has been found in global aquatic environments, causing great concern. The capabilities of five common submerged macrophytes to remove BPA from water and the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms were investigated. Macrophytes removed 62%–100% of total BPA (5 mg/L) over 12 days; much higher rates than that observed in the control (2%, F = 261.511, p = 0.000). Ceratophyllum demersum was the most efficient species. C. demersum samples from lakes with different water qualities showed no significant differences in BPA removal rates. Moreover, removal, inhibition or re-colonization of epiphytic microorganisms did not significantly change the BPA removal rates of C. demersum. Therefore, the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms to the BPA removal process were negligible. The rate of BPA accumulation in C. demersum was 0.1%, indicating that BPA was mainly biodegraded by the macrophyte. Hence, submerged macrophytes, rather than epiphytic microorganisms, substantially contribute to the biodegradation of BPA in water.
Macrophyte Bisphenol A Ceratophyllum demersumEpiphytic microorganisms Biodegradation
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was financially supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2013ZX07105-005) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31200399).
Agostini E, de Forchetti SM, Tigier HA (2000) Peroxidases from cell suspension cultures of brassica napus. Biocell 24(2):133–138Google Scholar
Allanson BR (2006) The fine structure of the periphyton of Chara sp. and Potamogeton natans from Wytham Pond, Oxford, and its significance to the macrophyte-periphyton metabolic model of R. G. Wetzel and H. L. Allen. Freshw Biol 3(6):535–542. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.1973.tb00075.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anudechakul C, Vangnai AS, Ariyakanon N (2015) Removal of chlorpyrifos by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the role of a plant-associated bacterium. Int J Phytoremediation 17(7):678–685. doi:10.1080/15226514.2014.964838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hempel M, Blume M, Blindow I, Gross EM (2008) Epiphytic bacterial community composition on two common submerged macrophytes in brackish water and freshwater. BMC Microbiol 8(1):1–10. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-8-58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Imai S, Gamo SK (2007) Removal of phenolic endocrine disruptors by Portulaca oleracea. J Biosci Bioeng 103(5):420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oehlmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Bachmann J, Oetken M et al (2006) Bisphenol a induces superfeminization in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 114(suppl 1):127–133. doi:10.1289/ehp.8065Google Scholar
Olsen RA, Bakken LR (1987) Viability of soil bacteria: optimization of plate-counting technique and comparison between total counts and plate counts within different size groups. Microb Ecol 13(1):59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorkhoh NA, Al-Mailem DM, Ali N, Al-Awadhi H, Salamah S, Eliyas M et al (2011) Bioremediation of volatile oil hydrocarbons by epiphytic bacteria associated with American grass (Cynodon sp.) and broad bean (Vicia faba) leaves. Int Biodeter Biodegr 65(6):797–802. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.01.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toyama T, Murashita M, Kobayashi K, Kikuchi S, Sei K, Tanaka Y et al (2011) Acceleration of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol degradation in sediment by Phragmites australis and associated rhizosphere bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 45(15):6524–6530. doi:10.1021/es201061aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A, Shiraishi H, Nakasugi O (2001) Bisphenol a in hazardous waste landfill leachates. Chemosphere 42(4):415–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou F, Han RM, Ma J, Wang GX (2016) Submerged macrophytes shape the abundance and diversity of bacterial denitrifiers in bacterioplankton and epiphyton in the shallow fresh lake Taihu, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(14):1–13. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-6390-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar