Skip to main content

Cadmium Uptake by Cuttings of Impatiens walleriana in Response to Different Cadmium Concentrations and Growth Periods


Impatiens walleriana (I. walleriana), a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, can propagate by cuttings, which are less expensive to grow than seedlings. Different growth periods for cuttings, however, may lead to different physiological characteristics. In this study, I. walleriana cuttings were hydroponically grown in Cd-containing solutions (1.0–10.0 μM) for various growth periods (10–60 days). Experimental results showed that the Cd treatments had negative effects on growth compared to the controls that were not spiked with Cd. The extension of the growth period promoted most of the growth exhibitions of I. walleriana, except for SPAD readings for cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The accumulation of Cd also increased over time, except in the roots of the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd showed that I. walleriana developed better tolerance and detoxification capacities in the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions than in the cuttings grown in the other two Cd treatments.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Bhatia NP, Walsh KB, Baker AJM (2005) Detection and quantification of ligands involved in nickel detoxification in a herbaceous Ni hyper-accumulator Stackhousia truonii Bailey. J Exp Bot 56:1343–1349

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ding P, Zhuang P, Li Z, Xia HP, Lu HP (2013) Accumulation and detoxification of cadmium by larvae of Prodenia litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on Cd-enriched amaranth leaves. Chemosphere 91:28–34

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Fu X, Dou C, Chen Y, Chen X, Shi J (2011) Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Phytplacca americana L. J Hazard Mater 186:103–107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gallego SM, Pena LB, Barcia RA, Azpilicueta CE, Iannone MF, Rosales EP, Zawoznik MS, Groppa MD, Benavides MP (2012) Unravelling cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants: insight into regulatory mechanisms. Environ Exp Bot 83:33–46

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Haynes RJ (1980) Ion exchange properties of roots and ionic interactions within root apoplasm: their role in ion accumulation by plants. Bot Rev 46:75–99

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. He SY, Wu QL, He ZL (2013) Effect of DA-6 and EDTA alone or in combination on uptake, subcellular distribution and chemical form of Pb in Lolium perenne. Chemosphere 93:2782–2788

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kovacevic G, Kastori R, Merkulov L (1999) Dry matter and leaf structure in young wheat plants as affected by cadmium, lead, and nickel. Biol Plant 42:119–123

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Lai HY (2015) Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana in relation to its phytoextraction potential. Chemosphere 138:370–376

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Liu X, Zhang S, Shan XQ, Christie P (2007) Combined toxicity of cadmium and arsenate to wheat seedlings and plant uptake and antioxidative enzyme responses to cadmium and arsenate co-contamination. Ecotox Environ Safe 68:305–313

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Liu YT, Chen ZS, Hong CY (2011) Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula. J Hazard Mater 189:724–731

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition, 5th edn. Springer Sciences, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  12. Prasad MNV (2004) Heavy metal stress in plants (from biomolecules to ecosystems). Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  13. Qiu Q, Wang Y, Yang Z, Yuan J (2011) Effects of phosphorus supplied in soil on subcellular distribution and chemical forms in two Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars differing in cadmium accumulation. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2260–2267

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Su Y, Liu JL, Lu ZW, Wang XM, Zhang Z, Shi GG (2014) Effects of iron deficiency on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in peanut roots in relation to its translocation. Environ Exp Bot 97:40–48

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Wang X, Liu YG, Zeng GM, Chai LY, Song XC, Min ZY, Xiao X (2008) Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Bechmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. Environ Exp Bot 62:389–395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wang JL, Yuan JG, Yang ZY, Huang BF, Zhou YH, Xin JL, Gong YL, Yu H (2009) Variation in cadmium accumulation among 30 cultivars and cadmium subcellular distribution in 2 selected cultivars of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). J Agric Food Chem 57:8942–8949

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Wei JL, Lai HY, Chen ZS (2012) Chelator effects on bioconcentration and translocation of cadmium by hyperaccumulators, Tagetes patula and Impatiens walleriana. Ecotox Environ Safe 84:173–178

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Xu DY, Chen ZF, Sun K, Yan D, Kang MJ, Zhao Y (2013) Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Ecotox Environ Safe 97:147–153

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Yoshida S, Forna DA, Cock JH, Gomez KA (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 62–63

    Google Scholar 

  20. Zhang J, Sun W, Li Z, Liang Y, Song A (2009) Cadmium fate and tolerance in rice cultivars. Agron Sustain Dev 29:483–490

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Zhao YF, Wu JF, Shang DR, Ning JS, Zhai YX, Shend XF, Ding HY (2015) Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in the edible seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis. Food Chem 168:48–54

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Zhu QH, Huang DY, Liu SL, Luo ZC, Rao ZX, Cao XL, Ren XF (2013) Accumulation and subcellular distribution of cadmium in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud.) planted on elevated soil cadmium contents. Plant Soil Environ 59:57–61

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China for financially supporting this research under Contract No. MOST 104-2313-B-451-001. We also thank the students of the Soil Survey and Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, for their assistance during pot experiment and experimental analysis.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hung-Yu Lai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lai, HY., Lam, CM., Wang, WZ. et al. Cadmium Uptake by Cuttings of Impatiens walleriana in Response to Different Cadmium Concentrations and Growth Periods. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 98, 317–322 (2017).

Download citation


  • Cadmium
  • Chemical form
  • Impatiens walleriana
  • Phytoextraction
  • Subcellular distribution