Skip to main content

Distribution Characteristics, Concentrations, and Sources of Cd and Pb in Laoxiawan Channel Sediments from Zhuzhou, China


Twenty sediment cores encompassing surface (0–20 cm) and deeper (50–60 cm) sediment layers were retrieved from the 3000 m-long Laoxiawan Channel, which receives industrial effluents from Zhuzhou City (China). Analytical results showed that cadmium (Cd) concentrations ranged between 115.7–1126.7 and 108.8–2059.3 mg/kg while lead (Pb) values ranged between 234–3000 and 145–4292 mg/kg in the surface and bottom sediments, respectively. The results also indicated that high levels of Cd and Pb were present in the vicinity of the channel mouth and confluence area. Indices for potential ecological risk and geo-accumulation were used to evaluate the environmental effects and intensity of heavy metal pollution over time. High concentrations of Cd and Pb in the bottom sediments of Laoxiawan Channel were mainly associated with wastewater discharge (106 m3/year). Thus, the Laoxiawan Channel may be an important metal contaminant source for the Xiang River.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Abdallah MAM, Mohamed AA (2014) Assessment of heavy metals by sediment quality guideline in surficial sediments of Abu Qir Bay southeastern Mediterranean sea. Environ Earth Sci, Egypt. doi:10.1007/s12665-014-3646-2

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bird G, Brewer PA, Macklin MG, Balteanu D, Driga B, Serban M, Zaharia S (2003) The solid state partitioning of contaminant metals and As in river channel sediments of the mining affected Tisa drainage basin, northwestern Romania and eastern Hungary. Appl Geochem 18:1583–1595. doi:10.1016/s0883-2927(03)00078-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. CCME (1999) Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life for lead, cadmium. Prepared by Environment Canada, Guidelines Division, Technical Secretariat of the CCME Task Group on Water Quality Guidelines, Ottawa

  4. Chen CW, Kao CM, Chen CF, Dong CD (2007) Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere 66:1431–1440. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.09.030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. CSBTS (2002) China State Bureau of quality and technical supervision. The People’s Republic of China National Standards GB 18668-2002. Marine Sediment Quality, 10

  6. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hou D, He J, Lü C, Ren L, Fan Q, Wang J, Xie Z (2013) Distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) in water and sediments from Lake Dalinouer, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 93:135–144

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. HRAES (1985) Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences. Environmental Protection Agency of Zhuzhou: Study on water environmental capacity of heavy metals in Xiang river-water quality management planning of heavy metals in Zhuzhou section of Xiang River, (65) 37-3(1/2) 16 (in Chinese)

  9. Kamala-Kannan S, Prabhu Dass Batvari B, Lee KJ, Kannan N, Krishnamoorthy R, Shanthi K, Jayaprakash M (2008) Assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) in water, sediment and seaweed (Ulva lactuca) in the Pulicat Lake, South East India. Chemosphere 71:1233–1240. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.12.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Li H (2007) Research on the Treatment Engineering of Heavy Metal Sedimentation in River Ports of Zhuzhou Qingshuitang Industrial District Master Dissertation of Xiangtan University 2

  11. MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, Berger T (2000) Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39:20–31

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Mao LJ, Mo DW, Guo YY, Fu Q, Yang JH, Jia YF (2013) Multivariate analysis of heavy metals in surface sediments from lower reaches of the Xiangjiang River, southern China. Environ Earth Sci 69:765–771

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Miller H, Croudace IW, Bull JM, Cotterill CJ, Dix JK, Taylor RN (2014) A 500 year sediment lake record of anthropogenic and natural inputs to Windermere (English Lake District) using double-spike lead isotopes, radiochronology, and sediment microanalysis. Environ Sci Technol 48:7254–7263. doi:10.1021/es5008998

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Müller G (1979) Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins-Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79:778–783

    Google Scholar 

  15. Peng B et al (2011) Geochemistry of trace metals and Pb isotopes of sediments from the lowermost Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province (P. R. China): implications on sources of trace metals. Environ Earth Sci 64:1455–1473. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-0969-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rodríguez L, Ruiz E, Alonso-Azcárate J, Rincón J (2009) Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings and soils around a Pb–Zn mine in Spain. J Environ Manag 90:1106–1116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Senthil Kumar K, Sajwan KS, Richardson JP, Kannan K (2008) Contamination profiles of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols in sediment and oyster collected from marsh/estuarine Savannah GA, USA. Mar Pollut Bull 56(1):136–149. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.08.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Sun W, Sang L, Jiang B (2012) Trace metals in sediments and aquatic plants from the Xiangjiang River, China. J Soils Sediments 12:1649–1657. doi:10.1007/s11368-012-0596-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Tessier A, Campbell PG, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Wu G, Pan L, Wei Q, Guo L (2015) Decreased mobility of heavy metals in Haihe River sediments: the possible role of tide gate. J Geochem Explor 157:92–99. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.06.002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Yang Z, Wang Y, Shen Z, Niu J, Tang Z (2009) Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in sediments from the mainstream, tributaries, and lakes of the Yangtze River catchment of Wuhan, China. J Hazard Mater 166:1186–1194. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.034

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Zhang S, Dong WJ, Zhang LC, Chen XB (1989) Geochemical characteristics of heavy metals in the Xiangjiang River, China. In: Sediment/Water Interactions. Springer, Netherlands, pp 253–262. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-2376-8_23

  23. Zhang Z, Tao F, Du J, Shi P, Yu D, Meng Y, Sun Y (2010) Surface water quality and its control in a river with intensive human impacts—a case study of the Xiangjiang River, China. J Environ Manage 91:2483–2490

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Zheng N, Wang Q, Liang Z, Zheng D (2008) Characterization of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of three freshwater rivers in Huludao City, Northeast China. Environ Pollut 154:135–142. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.01.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Zhu HN et al (2012) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Xiawan Port based on modified potential ecological risk index. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 22:1470–1477

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of Ministry of Land and Resources of People’s Republic of China (No. 201111016): Reutilization technologies and demonstration of toxic metal contaminated sites in typical industrial zone.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shi-hua Qi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chen, Ww., Zhang, Jx., Abass, Ok. et al. Distribution Characteristics, Concentrations, and Sources of Cd and Pb in Laoxiawan Channel Sediments from Zhuzhou, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 797–803 (2016).

Download citation


  • Cd
  • Pb
  • Laoxiawan Channel sediments
  • Potential ecological risk index
  • Geo-accumulation index