Skip to main content

Attenuation of Urinary Cadmium in Inhabitants of the Environmentally Exposed Jinzu River Basin Determined by Applying a Mixed Linear Model

Abstract

Half-life of urinary cadmium level (U-Cd) was estimated in inhabitants whose initial U-Cd was ≥5 μg/L (131 men and 177 women) or ≥5 μg/gcr (195 men and 246 women), using a linear mixed model adjusted for the baseline age. To clarify the effect of initial U-Cd, the target participants were divided into higher or lower initial U-Cd group. In the higher groups, the half-lives were 15.4 and 13.1 years for unadjusted U-Cd and 19.0 and 23.0 years for creatinine-adjusted U-Cd, in men and women, respectively. In the lower groups, the half-lives were 38.0 and 26.0 years for unadjusted U-Cd in men and women. For creatinine-adjusted U-Cd, it was 42.9 years in men. For attenuation of U-Cd, there were an early fast component shown in the higher group and late slow component shown in the lower group. The attenuation of U-Cd is slower in the longer time compared to that previously reported.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aoshima K (1987) Epidemiology of renal tubular dysfunction in the inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture. Tohoku J Exp Med 152:151–172

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Aoshima K, Katoh T, Kasuya M (2006) Renal effects of environmental exposure to cadmium in middle-aged population of Jinzu River basin in Toyama, Japan: 2000–2002 study. Jpn J Hyg 61:69–80 (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Börjesson J, Bellander T, Järup L, Elinder CG, Mattsson S (1997) In vivo analysis of cadmium in battery workers versus measurements of blood, urine, and workplace air. Occup Environ Med 54:424–431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cai Y, Aoshima K, Katoh T, Teranishi H, Kasuya M (2001) Renal tubular dysfunction in male inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area in Toyama, Japan—an eleven-year follow-up study. J Epidemiol 11:180–189

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fan J, Aoshima K, Katoh T, Teranishi H, Kasuya M (1998) A follow-up study on renal tubular dysfunction in women living in the cadmium-polluted Jinzu River basin in Toyama, Japan. Part 1. Changes in the level of exposure to cadmium after soil replacement of polluted paddy fields and the related effects on the prognosis of renal tubular dysfunction. Jpn J Hyg 53:545–557 (in Japanese)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fitzmaurice GM, Laird NM, Ware JH (2004) Applied longitudinal analysis. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  7. Friberg L, Piscator M, Nordberg GF, Kjellström T (1974) Cadmium in the environment, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Cleveland

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ishizaki M, Suwazono Y, Kido T, Nishijo M, Honda R, Kobayashi E, Nogawa K, Nakagawa H (2015) Estimation of biological half-life of urinary cadmium in inhabitants after cessation of environmental cadmium pollution using a mixed linear model. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 32:1273–1276

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Järup L, Åkesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:201–208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Järup L, Rogenfelt A, Elinder CG, Nogawa K, Kjellström T (1983) Biological half-time of cadmium in the blood of workers after cessation of exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health 9:327–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kelman GR (1986) Cadmium metabolism in man. Hum Toxicol. 5:91–93

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kido T, Nogawa K, Ohmichi M, Honda R, Tsuritani I, Ishizaki M, Yamada Y (1992) Significance of urinary cadmium concentration in a Japanese population environmentally exposed to cadmium. Arch Environ Health 47:196–202

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kido T, Sunaga K, Nishijo M, Nakagawa H, Kobayashi E, Nogawa K (2004) The relation of individual cadmium concentration in urine with total cadmium intake in Kakehashi River basin, Japan. Toxicol Lett 152:57–61

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kjellström T (1971) A mathematical model for the accumulation of cadmium in human kidney cortex. Nord Hyg Tidskr 52:111–119

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kjellström T, Nordberg GF (1978) A kinetic model of cadmium metabolism in the human being. Environ Res 16:248–269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kono M, Yoshida T, Sugihara H, Hagino N (1956) Report on so-called Itai-itai disease—first report. J Jpn Soc Orthop 30:100–101 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kurachi M (1999) General research into cadmium poisoning prevention in the Jinzu River Basin and the worldwide significance of pollution-free mining. In: Nogawa K, Kurachi M, Kasuya M (eds) Advances in the prevention of environmental cadmium pollution and countermeasures, Eiko Laboratory, Kanazawa, pp 149–154

  18. Lauwerys R, Roels H, Regniers M, Buchet JP, Bernard A, Goret A (1979) Significance of cadmium concentration in blood and in urine in workers exposed to cadmium. Environ Res 20:375–391

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Nordberg GF, Kjellström T, Nordberg M (1985) Chapter 6 Kinetics and metabolism. In: Friberg L, Elinder CG, Kjellström T, Nordberg GF (eds) Cadmium and health: a toxicological and epidemiological appraisal, volume I Exposure, dose and metabolism, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 103–178

  20. Nordberg GF, Nogawa K, Nordberg M (2014) Chapter 32 Cadmium. In: Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals, 4th edn, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 667–716

  21. Roels HA, Lauwerys RR, Buchet JP, Bernard A, Chettle DR, Harvey TC, Al-Haddad IK (1981) In vivo measurement of liver and kidney cadmium in workers exposed to this metal: its significance with respect to cadmium in blood and urine. Environ Res 26:217–240

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Suwazono Y, Kido T, Nakagawa H, Nishijo M, Honda R, Kobayashi E, Dochi M, Nogawa K (2009) Biological half-life of cadmium in the urine of inhabitants after cessation of cadmium exposure. Biomarkers 14:77–81

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Tsuchiya K, Sugita M (1971) A mathematical model for deriving the biological half-life of a chemical. Nord Hyg Tidskr 52:105–110

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Welinder H, Skerfving S, Henriksen O (1977) Cadmium metabolism in man. Br J Ind Med 34:221–228

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants for aid from the Ministry of the Environment for health effects due to heavy metal exposure 2010–2012 and 2013–2015.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflicts of interest associated with this study to declare.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yasushi Suwazono.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nogawa, K., Suwazono, Y., Ishizaki, M. et al. Attenuation of Urinary Cadmium in Inhabitants of the Environmentally Exposed Jinzu River Basin Determined by Applying a Mixed Linear Model. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 699–703 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-016-1768-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Biological half-life
  • Longitudinal study
  • Risk assessment
  • Human