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Evaluation of the Destruction of the Harmful Cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa, with a Cavitation and Superoxide Generating Water Treatment Reactor


Cyanobacterial/Harmful Algal Blooms are a major issue for lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S.A. An effective destructive technology could be useful to protect sensitive areas, such as areas near water intakes. The study presented in this article explored the use of a reactor called the KRIA Water Treatment System. The reactor focuses on the injection of superoxide (O2 ), which is generated electrochemically from the atmosphere, into the water body. In addition, the injection process generates a significant amount of cavitation. The treatment process was tested in 190-L reactors spiked with water from cyanobacterial contaminated lakes. The treatment was very effective at destroying the predominant species of cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa, organic matter, and decreasing chlorophyll concentration. Microcystin toxin concentrations were also reduced. Data suggest that cavitation alone was an effective treatment, but the addition of superoxide improved performance, particularly regarding removal of cyanobacteria and reduction of microcystin concentration.

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The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Premier Materials Technology, Inc. of Minneapolis, MN, who funded the project and the time to prepare this paper. Mr. Keith Boulais, CEO, was our primary contact. We also acknowledge the support by Mr. Mike Mangham of ECOUSA, who provided information on the operation of the KRIA reactor. A follow on project was funded by the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, and some supplementary data were provided via this effort.

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Correspondence to Victor F. Medina.

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Medina, V.F., Griggs, C.S. & Thomas, C. Evaluation of the Destruction of the Harmful Cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa, with a Cavitation and Superoxide Generating Water Treatment Reactor. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 791–796 (2016).

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  • Cyanobacterial/harmful algal blooms (CHAB)
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Microcystin
  • Superoxide
  • Cavitation