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4,4′-DDE and Endosulfan Levels in Agricultural Soils of the Çukurova Region, Mediterranean Turkey

Abstract

Mediterranean Turkey has long been at the forefront of Turkish agriculture and the use of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in this area rose considerably between the 1940s and 1980s. This study aimed to determine OCP residue levels in agricultural soils collected from the Mersin and Adana Districts, Çukurova Basin in Mediterranean Turkey. Most soil samples were contaminated with one, or both, of two OCP metabolites; 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4′-DDE) and endosulfan sulfate. 4,4′-DDE occurred in 27 of the 29 samples and ranged from 6 to 1090 µg kg−1-dry soil (ds)−1, while six samples contained endosulfan sulfate ranging between 82 and 1226 µg kg−1-ds−1. Generally, horticultural and corn-planted soils contained only 4,4′-DDE, whereas greenhouse cultivation appeared to accumulate both residues. This study indicated that 4,4′-DDE occurred above acceptable levels of risk in agricultural soils of Mersin District and further studies on the qualitative and quantitative assessment of OCPs in other agricultural regions with intensive pesticide use are necessary to fully understand the impact of OCPs on agricultural soil in Turkey.

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Correspondence to Oğuz Can Turgay.

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Akça, M.O., Hisatomi, S., Takemura, M. et al. 4,4′-DDE and Endosulfan Levels in Agricultural Soils of the Çukurova Region, Mediterranean Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 376–382 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1714-2

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Keywords

  • OCPs
  • Soil
  • 4,4′-DDE
  • Endosulfan sulfate
  • Turkey