Skip to main content

Toxic and Essential Element Concentrations in Iberian Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain): Reference Intervals in Whole Blood

Abstract

Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) blood samples from the Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) were analyzed to establish concentrations of toxic and essential elements. Samples (whole blood from 32 males and 34 females) were taken from wild animals and the concentrations of inorganic elements considered as (1) non-essential and toxic (Pb, Cd and As), (2) essential but potentially toxic (Cu, Zn and Mn) and (3) occasionally beneficial (B, Cr, Al and Ni), as well as (4) essential minerals (Ca, Na, K, P, Mg, S, Co and Fe), were analyzed. The low concentration of Pb and Cd indicated that there is no heavy metal contamination in this geographical area for these elements. The concentration of elements in this ibex population was defined for different genders and ages. Significant differences between genders were only found for Mg and Cu, while significant differences in concentrations of Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn, P, S and Zn were found between ages.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ahmed MMM, Hamed TFM, Barri MES (2001) Variation of zinc and copper concentrations in the plasma of Nubian goats according to physiological state. Small Rumin Res 39:189–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alasaad S, Fickel J, Rossi L, Sarasa M, Benã-Tez-Camacho B, Granados JE, Soriguer RC (2012) Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain. Acta Vet Scand 54:56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bailey SM, Sarmandal P, Grant JM (1989) A comparison of three methods of assessing interobserver variation applied to measurement of the symphysisfundal height. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 96:1266–1271

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Baroni F, Protano G, Riccobono F, Sabatini G (2000) Essential and toxic elements in roe deer blood (Siena County, Italy). In: Markert B, Friese K (eds) Trace elements in the environment-their distribution and effects, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 485–505

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. Bernstein RE (1954) Potassium and sodium balance in mammalian red cells. Science 120:459–460

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Borjesson DL, Christopher MM, Boyce WM (2000) Biochemical and hematologic reference intervals for free-ranging desert bighorn sheep. J Wildl Dis 36:294–300

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Casas-Díaz E, López-Olvera JR, Marco I, Mentaberre G, Lavín S (2008) Hematologic and biochemical values for Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) captured via drive-net and box-trap. J Wild Dis 44:965–972

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dias RS, López S, Montanholi YR, Smith B, Haas LS, Miller SP, France J (2013) A metaanalysis of the effects of dietary copper, molybdenum, and sulfur on plasma and liver copper, weight gain, and feed conversion in growing-finishing cattle. Anim Sci 91:5714–5723

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Forrer R, Wenker CH, Gautschi K, Lutz H (2001) Concentration of 17 trace elements in serum and whole blood of plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) by ICP-MS, their reference ranges, and their relation to cataract. Biol Trace Elem Res 81(1):47–62

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Fry RS, Brown TT Jr, Lloyd KE, Hansen SL, Legleiter LR, Robarge WP, Spears JW (2011) Effect of dietary boron on physiological responses in growing steers inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type-1. Res Vet Sci 90:78–83

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. González FJ, Granados JE, Pérez JM, Pérez MC, Soriguer RC (2002) Estudios hematológicos y serológicos en la cabra montés. Distribución, genética y estatus sanitario de las poblaciones andaluzas de cabra montés. Universidad de Jaén - Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía, Jaén, pp 157–195

    Google Scholar 

  12. Granados JE, Pérez JM, Márquez FJ, Serrano E, Soriguer RC, Fandos P (2001) La cabra montés (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838). Galemys 13:3–37

    Google Scholar 

  13. Granados JE, Fandos P, Serrano E, Cano-Manuel J, Castillo A, Pérez JM, Soriguer RC (2007) Bases para la implementación de un plan de gestión de la cabra montés en Andalucía. Biodiversidad y conservación de fauna y flora en ambientes mediterráneos. Sociedad Granatense de Historia Natural, Granada, pp 669–690

    Google Scholar 

  14. Granados JE, Castillo A, Cano-Manuel J, Serrano E, Pérez JM, Soriguer RC, Fandos P (2009) Gestión de la cabra montés. In: Carranza J, Sáenz de Buruaga M (eds) Gestión cinegética en los ecosistemas mediterráneos. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, pp 452–485

    Google Scholar 

  15. Haldar S, Mondal S, Samanta S, Ghosh TK (2009) Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance and primary antibody response against peste des petits ruminants in dwarf Bengal goats (Capra hircus). Animal 3:209–217

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Hogstad O (1996) Accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc in the liver of some passerine species wintering in Central Norway. Sci Total Environ 183:187–194

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kinkaid RL (1999) Assessment of trace mineral status of ruminants: a review. Proc Am Soc Anim Sci 77:1–10

    Google Scholar 

  18. Klinkhoff AV, Bellamy N, Bombardier C, Carette S, Chalmers A, Esdaile JM, Goldsmith C, Tugwell P, Smythe HA, Buchanan WW (1988) An experiment in reducing interobserver variability of the examination for joint tenderness. J Rheumatol 15:492–494

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Liesegang A, Sassi ML, Risteli J (2003) Diurnal variation in concentration of various markers of bone metabolism in growing female goats and sheep. Anim Sci 77:197–203

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Linder MC (1988) Nutrición y metabolismo de los elementos traza. In: Nutrición. Aspectos bioquímicos, metabólicos y clínicos. EUNSA, Pamplona, pp 189–239

  21. López-Olvera JR, Marco I, Montané J, Lavín S (2006) Haematological and biochemical values of southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). Vet Rec 158:479–484

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lorca-Oró C, Pujols J, García-Bocanegra I, Mentaberre G, Granados JE, Solanes D, Fandos P, Galindo I, Domingo M, Lavín S, López-Olvera JR (2012) Protection of Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) against Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8 in a subclinical experimental infection. PLoS One 7(5):e36380. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Matthews J (2009) Diseases of the Goat, 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  24. McDowell LR (2003) General introduction. Minerals in animal and human nutrition, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 1–32

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Moe SM (2008) Disorders involving calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Prim Care 35:215–237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Montané J, Marco I, López-Olvera J, Manteca X, Lavín S (2002) Transport stress in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): effect of a short-acting antipsychotic. Anim Welfare 11:405–417

    Google Scholar 

  27. Mood AM, Graybill FA, Boes DC (1974) Tolerance limits. Introduction to the theory of statistics, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 515–518

    Google Scholar 

  28. Mora ML, Alfaro MA, Jarvis SC, Demanet R, Cartes P (2006) Soil aluminium availability in andisols of southern Chile and its effect on forage production and animal metabolism. Soil Use Manag 22:95–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Nielsen FH (1996) Other trace elements. In: Filer LJ, Ziegler EE (eds) Present knowledge in nutrition, 7th edn. International Life Sciences Institute, Nutrition Foundation, Washington, DC, pp 353–377

    Google Scholar 

  30. Pattinson RC, Theron GB (1989) Inter-observer variation in symphysis-fundus measurements. A plea for individualised antenatal care. S Afr Med J 76:621–622

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Paul TK, Haldar S, Ghosh TK (2005) Growth performance and nutrient utilization in black Bengal bucks (Capra hircus) supplemented with graded doses of chromium as chromium chloride hexahydrate. J Vet Sci 6:33–40

    Google Scholar 

  32. Pechova A, Misurova L, Pavlata L, Dvorak R (2009) The influence of supplementation of different forms of zinc in goats on the zinc concentration in blood, plasma and milk. Biol Trace Elem Res 132:112–121

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Peinado VI, Fernandez-Arias A, Viscor G, Palomeque J (1993) Haematology of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) restrained by physical or chemical means. Vet Rec 132:580–583

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Peinado VI, Fernandez-Arias A, Zalaba JL, Palomeque J (1995) Effect of captivity on the blood composition of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica). Vet Rec 137:588–591

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Pérez JM, Granados JE, Ruiz-Martínez I, Soriguer RC (1999) Hematologic parameters of the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica). J Zoo Wildl Med 30:550–554

    Google Scholar 

  36. Pérez JM, Granados JE, Soriguer RC, Fandos P, Marquez FJ, Crampe JP (2002) Distribution, status and conservation problems of the Spanish Ibex, Capra pyrenaica (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Mammal Rev 32:26–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Pérez JM, González FJ, Granados JE, Pérez MC, Fandos P, Soriguer RC, Serrano E (2003) Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Spanish Ibex. J Wildl Dis 39:209–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Pérez JM, González FJ, Serrano E, Granados JE, Fandos P, Carro F, Soriguer RC (2006) Is blood collected from shot Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) useful for monitoring their physiological status? Eur J Wildl Res 52:125–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Poppenga RH, Ramsey J, Gonzales BJ, Johns CK (2012) Reference intervals for mineral concentrations in whole blood and serum of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:531–538

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Puchala R, Sahlu T, Davis JJ (1999) Effects of zinc-methionine on performance of Angora goats. Small Rumin Res 33:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Rea HM, Thomson CD, Campbell DR, Robinson MF (1979) Relation between erythrocyte selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activities of New Zealand residents and visitors to New Zealand. Br J Nutr 42:201–208

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Real Decreto 785/2001, de 6 de julio, por el que se adelanta la prohibición de comercialización de las gasolinas con plomo y se establecen las especificaciones de las gasolinas que sustituirán a aquéllas. BOE 162:24775–24776

  43. Reglero MM, Monsalve-González L, Tagart MA, Mateo R (2008) Transfer of metals to plants and red deer in an old lead mining area in Spain. Sci Total Environ 406:287–297

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Robinson MF, Rea HM, Friend GM, Stewart RDH, Snow PC, Thomson CD (1978) On supplementing the selenium intake of New Zeealanders. 2. Prolonged metabolic experiments with daily supplements of selenomethionine, selenite and fish. Br J Nutr 39:589–600

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Sartorelli P, Agnes F, Lanfranchi P (1997) Pathophysiological significance of hematochemical parameters of Capra ibex. Hystrix 9:39–44

    Google Scholar 

  46. Schalm OW (1980) Blood and blood-forming organs. In: Amstutz HE (ed) Bovine medicine and surgery II. American Veterinary Publication, Santa Barbara, CA, pp 771–822

    Google Scholar 

  47. Serrano E, Granados JE, Pérez JM (2007) Sarcoptic mange and metapodial development in growing male Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Vet Parasitol 144:375–379

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Shackleton DM (1997) Wild sheep and goats and their relatives: status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland

    Google Scholar 

  49. Solberg HE (2006) Establishment and use of reference values. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds) Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, MO, pp 425–448

    Google Scholar 

  50. Stefanidou M, Maravelias C, Dona A, Spiliopoulou C (2006) Zinc: a multipurpose trace element. Arch Toxicol 80:1–9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Suttle NF (2010) Zinc. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, 4th edn. CAB International, Oxfordshire, pp 426–458

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  52. Swarup D, Patra RC, Naresh R, Kumar P, Shekhar P, Balagangatharathilagar M (2006) Lowered blood copper and cobalt contents in goats reared around lead–zinc smelter. Small Ruminant Res 63:309–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Theodossi A, Knill-Jones RP, Skene A, Lindberg G, Bjerregaard B, Holst-Christensen J, Williams R (1981) Inter-observer variation of symptoms and signs in jaundice. Liver 1:21–32

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Van Miert ASJPAM (1985) Fever and associated clinical haematologic and blood biochemical changes in the goat and other animal species. Vet Quart 7:200–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Walton RM (2001) Establishing reference intervals: health as a relative concept. Semin in Avian Exot Pet 10:66–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Wren CD, Nygård N, Steinnes E (1994) Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) as a biomonitor of environmental metal levels in Norway. Environ Pollut 85:291–295

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to A. Sánchez, J. López, I. Puga, E. Martínez, M. Cárdenas, F. Casado, A. Rodríguez and the staff of Sierra Nevada National Park, who made the capture of the animals and the collection of blood samples possible. Thanks are also due to F. San Nicolás for the processing of the samples. The research activities were partially funded by the Junta de Andalucía, Plan Andaluz de Investigación (RNM-118 group). The activities included in this work comply with Spanish laws regarding experimentation and animal welfare.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Diego Romero.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ráez-Bravo, A., Granados, J.E., Cano-Manuel, F.J. et al. Toxic and Essential Element Concentrations in Iberian Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain): Reference Intervals in Whole Blood. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 273–280 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1711-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Iberian ibex
  • Blood
  • Spain
  • Elements
  • Metals