Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95 % confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L−1, respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L−1. Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aksu Z (2005) Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochem 40:997–1026. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.04.008
Aksu Z, Tezer S (2005) Biosorption of reactive dyes on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 40:1347–1361. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.007
Çelekli A, Yavuzatmaca M, Bozkurt H (2013) Binary adsorption of Reactive Red 120 and Yellow 81 on Spirogyra majuscule. Middle East J Sci Res 13:740–748
Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97:1061–1085
Daneshvar N, Aleboyeh A, Khataee AR (2005) The evaluation of electrical energy per order (EE0) for photooxidative decolorization of four textile dye solutions by the kinetic model. Chemosphere 59:761–767
Dönmez G, Aksu Z (2002) Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewaters by Dunaliella species. Process Biochem 38:751–762
Edris B, Ferdos KM, Ali RH, Ataola RK, Amir HM (2013) Decolorisation of Reactive Red 120 Dye by using single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions. Eur J Chem (Online) ISSN 2090-9071. doi:10.1155/2013/938374
Gregus Z, Klaassen CD (2001) Mechanisms of toxicity. In: Casarett and Doull`s toxicology: the basic science of poisons. 6th edn. The McGraw, Hill Companies, pp 35–78
Gupta VK, Suhas IA, Saini VK, Garven VT, Van Der Bruugen B, Vandecasteele C (2005) Removal of dyes from wastewater using bottom ash. Ind Eng Chem Res 44:3655–3664
Klemola K (2008) Textile toxicity: cytotoxicity and spermatozoa motility inhibition resulting from reactive dyes and dyed fabrics. Kuopio Univ Publ C Nat Environ Sci 241:1–67
Kumar KV, Ramamurthi V, Sivanesan S (2006) Biosorption of malachite green cationic dye onto Pithophora sp., a fresh water alga. Dyes Pigm 69:74–79
Mohammed SI, Sunandan P, Chandrasekaran N, Amitava M (2011) Studies on toxicity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles to microalgae species: Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. J Nanopart Res 13:3287–3299
Mohan SV, Roa CN, Prasad KK, Karthikeyan J (2002) Treatment of simulated reactive yellow 22 (Azo) dye effluents using Spirogyra species. Waste Manage 22:575–582
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (No. 201, Adopted: 23rd March 2006) Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-201-alga-growth-inhibition-test_9789264069923-en;jsessionid=3jojqb4879lug.x-oecd-live-01
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (No. 202, Adopted: 13th April 2004) Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilization Test. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-202-daphnia-sp-acute-immobilisation-test_9789264069947-en
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (No. 203, Adopted: 17th July 1992) Fish, Acute Toxicity Test. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-203-fish-acute-toxicity-test_9789264069961-en
OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (No. 221, Adopted: 23rd March 2006) Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-221-lemna-sp-growth-inhabition-test_9789264016194-en
Pearce CI, Lioyd JR, Guthric JT (2003) The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cell: a review. Dyes Pigm 58:179–196
Robinson T, Mcmullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource Technol 77:247–255
We are grateful to Dr. P. Balakrishna Murthy, Former Director, IIBAT, for his valuable support during the study. Also, we extend our sincere thanks to Dr. T.N. Sathya, Department of Genetic Toxicology, IIBAT for her valuable inputs in the preparation of the manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Darsana, R., Chandrasehar, G., Deepa, V. et al. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 95, 582–587 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1636-z
- Reactive Red 120
- Aquatic toxicity
- Effective concentration
- Lethal concentration
- No observable effective concentration
- Least observable effective concentration