Source Contribution of PM2.5 at Different Locations on the Malaysian Peninsula

  • Ooi Ee-Ling
  • Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa
  • Norhaniza Amil
  • Md Firoz Khan
  • Mohd Talib LatifEmail author


This study determined the source contribution of PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 μm) in air at three locations on the Malaysian Peninsula. PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume sampler equipped with quartz filters. Ion chromatography was used to determine the ionic composition of the samples and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. Principal component analysis with multilinear regressions were used to identify the possible sources of PM2.5. The range of PM2.5 was between 10 ± 3 and 30 ± 7 µg m−3. Sulfate (SO4 2−) was the major ionic compound detected and zinc was found to dominate the heavy metals. Source apportionment analysis revealed that motor vehicle and soil dust dominated the composition of PM2.5 in the urban area. Domestic waste combustion dominated in the suburban area, while biomass burning dominated in the rural area.


Chemical compositions PCA-MLR Urban Suburban Rural 



We thank the Malaysian Ministry of Education (FRGS/1/2013/SPWN01/UKM/02/2 Research Grant) and Dr. Rose Norman for proofreading this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ooi Ee-Ling
    • 1
  • Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa
    • 1
  • Norhaniza Amil
    • 1
    • 3
  • Md Firoz Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Research Centre for Tropical Climate Change Systems (IKLIM), Institute for Climate ChangeUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Industrial Technology (Environmental Division)Universiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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