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Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water and Two Fish Species from Golf Course Ponds in Beijing, China


To assess the situation of heavy metals contamination, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in water and two fish species (crucian carp and grass carp) from six golf course ponds of Beijing were measured. Differences in metals concentrations in water and fish samples were observed among different sites, but below the relevant standards and safety values. Significant positive correlations were found between metals concentrations in water and fish samples, except for As in grass carp. Health risks to human via dietary intake of fish were then assessed based on the target hazard quotient and hazard index (HI). The HI in all fish samples were lower than 1, indicating the absence of health risks through consuming these fish.

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We thank superintendents of golf courses to help us collect samples. This study was supported by the Aolin Golf Foundation of China (No. AL2013002) and Key Discipline Construction Projects from Beijing Municipal Commission of Education.

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Correspondence to Liebao Han.

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PuYang, X., Gao, C. & Han, L. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water and Two Fish Species from Golf Course Ponds in Beijing, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 94, 437–443 (2015).

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  • Golf course
  • Heavy metals
  • Health risks
  • Fish
  • THQ
  • HI