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Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction Coupled to Ion Mobility Spectrometry for the Determination of p-Toluidine in Water Samples

Abstract

In this research, homogeneous liquid–liquid extraction followed by ion mobility spectrometry (HLLE–IMS) with corona discharge ionization source has been developed for the determination of p-toluidine. The analyte was extracted by single-phase extraction in a ternary solvent system and then the extracted p-toluidine was injected into IMS for analysis. Optimization of different parameters which could influence HLLE–IMS was performed. Under optimum conditions, the dynamic linear range was obtained over 2.0–40.0 ng/mL with R 2 = 0.9966 while relative standard deviation was below 10 %. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 2.0 ng/mL of p-toluidine, respectively. The proposed method was applied to determine p-toluidine in environmental water samples which resulted in acceptable recoveries of the analyte, ranging from 85.3 %–90 %.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Islamic Azad University, Yazd branch for the financial support of this work.

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Correspondence to Ali Sheibani.

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Ashori, A., Sheibani, A. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction Coupled to Ion Mobility Spectrometry for the Determination of p-Toluidine in Water Samples. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 94, 474–478 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1426-z

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Keywords

  • p-Toluidine
  • Homogeneous liquid–liquid extraction (HLLE)
  • Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)
  • Environmental water samples