The Effect of Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos, and Glyphosate Active Ingredients and Formulations on Daphnia magna (Straus)
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- Demetrio, P.M., Bonetto, C. & Ronco, A.E. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2014) 93: 268. doi:10.1007/s00128-014-1336-0
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Acute effects of active ingredients (a.i.) and formulations (F) of widely used pesticides were assessed by means of the Daphnia magna toxicity test. Studied pesticides were the insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide, glyphosate. Results were analyzed and compared according to statistical endpoints (LCx) and log-probit regressions of toxicity data. The potency of acute toxicity followed the order: chlorpyrifos F > chlorpyrifos a.i. > cypermethrin F > cypermethrin a.i. ≫ glyphosate F > glyphosate a.i. Three to five orders of magnitude differences between the toxicity (µg/L to mg/L) of insecticides and the herbicide were observed. A pairwise comparison between a.i. and F indicated that all formulations were more potent. Additionally, for the case of glyphosate, evidence suggests that the adjuvant contributes to formulation toxicity rather than to the enhancement of a.i. potency.