Skip to main content

Phytotoxicity of Atrazine to Emergent Hydrophyte, Iris pseudacorus L.

Abstract

The emergent hydrophyte Iris pseudacorus was constantly exposed over a 35-day period to atrazine in the laboratory. It could survive at an atrazine level up to 32 mg/L. Its relative growth rates were inhibited significantly when exposure dosage reached at or exceeded 2 mg/L (p < 0.05). No observed effect concentration and lowest observed effect concentration for growth were 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Chlorophyll a and b contents of the plant in all treatment groups were affected significantly, and chlorophyll a/b ratios of all atrazine treatment levels were pronouncedly higher than those of the control within 5 days of exposure (p < 0.05), but thereafter recovered to the level of the control. Differences of photosynthetic efficiency were significant between all atrazine treatments and the control; except for 1 mg/L on day 1 and 5, and 2 mg/L on day 1. I. pseudacorus did not show phytotoxicity symptoms after 35 days exposure to atrazine below 2 mg/L level, but photosynthetic efficiency had begun to decline.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Ascard J (1995) Effects of flame weeding on weed species at different developmental stages. Weed Res 35:397–411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Biddlestone AJ, Gray KR, Thurairajan K (1991) A botanical approach to the treatment of wastewaters. J Biotechnol 17:209–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Burke JJ, Wilson RF, Swafford JR (1982) Characterization of chloroplasts isolated from triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant biotypes of Brassica campestris l. Plant Physiol 70:24–29

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Huang G, Li Q, Zhang X (2003) Adsorption and desorption of atrazine by three soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:655–661

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Knauert S, Singer H, Hollender J, Knauer K (2010) Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms. Environ Pollut 158:167–174

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Lewis MA (1995) Use of freshwater plants for phytotoxicity testing: a review. Environ Pollut 87:319–336

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. McGregor EB, Solomon KR, Hanson ML (2008) Effects of planting system design on the toxicological sensitivity of Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis to atrazine. Chemosphere 73:249–260

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Moore MT, Locke MA (2012) Phytotoxicity of atrazine, s-metolachlor, and permethrin to Typha latifolia (Linneaus) germination and seedling growth. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89:292–295

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Morgan MK (1996) Teratogenic potential of atrazine and 2, 4-D using FETAX. J Toxicol Environ Health A 48:151–168

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Olette R, Couderchet M, Biagianti S, Eullaffroy P (2008) Toxicity and removal of pesticides by selected aquatic plants. Chemosphere 70:1414–1421

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Pan H, Li X, Xu X, Gao S (2009) Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii. J Environ Sci 21:307–312

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Peterson HG, Boutin C, Martin PA, Freemark KE, Ruecker NJ, Moody MJ (1994) Aquatic phyto-toxicity of 23 pesticides applied at expected environmental concentrations. Aquat Toxicol 28:275–292

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Seefeldt SS, Jensen JE, Fuerst EP (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol 9:218–227

    Google Scholar 

  14. Solomon KR, Baker DB, Richards RP, Dixon KR, Klaine SJ, La Point TW, Kendall RJ, Weisskopf CP, Giddings JM, Giesy JP (1996) Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:31–76

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ Exp Bot 62:10–16

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wang Z, Zou L, Fan B, Peng AY (2006) Abnormal metaphase cell division induced by microtubules depolymerization and photosystem II inhibiting herbicides. Cytologia 71:289–295

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Wang QH, Zhang W, Li C, Xiao B (2012) Phytoremediation of atrazine by three emergent hydrophytes in a hydroponic system. Water Sci Technol 66:1282–1288

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Wilson PC, Whitwell T, Klaine SJ (2000) Phytotoxicity, uptake, and distribution of 14C-simazine in Acorus gramenius and Pontederia cordata. Weed Sci 48:701–709

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370450) and National Key Technologies R&D Program of China (2012BAD14B02).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Qinghai Wang or Xiaoe Que.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wang, Q., Que, X., Li, C. et al. Phytotoxicity of Atrazine to Emergent Hydrophyte, Iris pseudacorus L.. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92, 300–305 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1178-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Herbicides
  • Aquatic plants
  • Growth
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence