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Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction Technique Capable of Analyzing Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs in Clams and Crab Tissue


A selective pressurized liquid extraction technique (SPLE) was developed for the analysis of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (dl-PCBs) in clam and crab tissue. The SPLE incorporated multiple cleanup adsorbents (alumina, florisil, silica gel, celite, and carbopack) within the extraction cell. Tissue extracts were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. Mean recovery (n = 3) and percent relative standard deviation for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in clam and crabs was 89 ± 2.3 and 85 ± 4.0, respectively. The SPLE method was applied to clams and crabs collected from the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a Superfund site in Houston, TX. The dl-PCBs concentrations in clams and crabs ranged from 50 to 2,450 and 5 to 800 ng/g ww, respectively. Sample preparation time and solvents were reduced by 92 % and 65 %, respectively, as compared to USEPA method 1613.

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Authors gratefully acknowledge the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and Texas Environmental Health Institute for financial support (Project Ref. 32370108). Authors would also like to thank Dr. Jason Berninger for assistance with collecting organisms from the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a Superfund site in Houston, TX. The authors are grateful to the Mass Spectrometry Center at Baylor University for providing an access to VG Prospec.

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Correspondence to Sascha Usenko.

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Subedi, B., Aguilar, L., Williams, E.S. et al. Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction Technique Capable of Analyzing Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs in Clams and Crab Tissue. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92, 460–465 (2014).

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  • Selective pressurized liquid extraction
  • Dioxins and furans
  • Polychlorobiphenyls
  • Clam
  • Crab
  • Adsorbents