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An Assessment of In Ovo Toxicity of the Flame Retardant 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-Dibromoethyl) Cyclohexane (TBECH) in the Zebra Finch


Embryonic toxicity of a brominated flame retardant, TBECH (1,2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane) was investigated using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as our model. Using in ovo dosing procedures, we injected the technical TBECH compound, consisting of 50:50 α-/β-isomers, directly into the yolk of freshly laid eggs at concentrations of 2.3–94 ng/g egg. No significant effects were observed in terms of growth or survival for either pre-hatch embryos or post-hatch chicks. Analysis of tissue samples at various developmental stages suggests that α-/β-TBECH was metabolized rapidly, and thus is unlikely to cause any direct, long-term effects on the development of zebra finch embryos or offspring.

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This study was financially supported by the Chemical Management Plan (CMP; Environment Canada). We would like to thank Lewis Gauthier in the Organic Contaminants Research Laboratory (OCRL) in the National Wildlife Research Center, Environment Canada for the TBECH/FR analysis.

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Correspondence to Heidi A. Currier or John E. Elliott.

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Currier, H.A., Letcher, R.J., Williams, T.D. et al. An Assessment of In Ovo Toxicity of the Flame Retardant 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-Dibromoethyl) Cyclohexane (TBECH) in the Zebra Finch. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91, 455–459 (2013).

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  • Zebra finches
  • In ovo
  • Embryonic exposure
  • Brominated flame retardants