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Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ionic Species Associated with PM10 Particles in the Ambient Air of Central India

Abstract

PM10 aerosol samples were collected in Durg City, India from July 2009 to June 2010 using an Andersen aerosol sampler and analyzed for eight water-soluble ionic species, namely, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, NO3 and SO4 2− by ion chromatography. The annual average concentration of PM10 (253.5 ± 99.4 μg/m3) was four times higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg/m3 prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. The three most abundant ions were SO4 2−, NO3 , and NH4 +, with average concentrations of 8.88 ± 4.81, 5.63 ± 2.22, and 5.18 ± 1.76 μg/m3, respectively, and in turn accounting for 27.1 %, 16.5 %, and 15.5 % of the total water-soluble ions analyzed. Seasonal variation was similar for all secondary ions i.e., SO4 2−, NO3 , and NH4 +, with high concentrations during winter and low concentrations during monsoon. Varimax Rotated Component Matrix principal component analysis identified secondary aerosols, crustal resuspension, and coal and biomass burning as common sources of PM10 in Durg City, India.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. K.S. Patel, the Head of the School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India, for providing laboratory support.

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Correspondence to Dhananjay K. Deshmukh.

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Deshmukh, D.K., Tsai, Y.I., Deb, M.K. et al. Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ionic Species Associated with PM10 Particles in the Ambient Air of Central India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 1091–1097 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0806-5

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Keywords

  • Atmospheric aerosols
  • Water-soluble ions
  • Seasonal variation
  • Source identification