PM10 aerosol samples were collected in Durg City, India from July 2009 to June 2010 using an Andersen aerosol sampler and analyzed for eight water-soluble ionic species, namely, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3 − and SO4 2− by ion chromatography. The annual average concentration of PM10 (253.5 ± 99.4 μg/m3) was four times higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg/m3 prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. The three most abundant ions were SO4 2−, NO3 −, and NH4 +, with average concentrations of 8.88 ± 4.81, 5.63 ± 2.22, and 5.18 ± 1.76 μg/m3, respectively, and in turn accounting for 27.1 %, 16.5 %, and 15.5 % of the total water-soluble ions analyzed. Seasonal variation was similar for all secondary ions i.e., SO4 2−, NO3 −, and NH4 +, with high concentrations during winter and low concentrations during monsoon. Varimax Rotated Component Matrix principal component analysis identified secondary aerosols, crustal resuspension, and coal and biomass burning as common sources of PM10 in Durg City, India.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bhaskar BV, Mehta VM (2010) Atmospheric particulate pollutants and their relationship with meteorology in Ahmadabad. Aerosol Air Qual Res 10:301–315
Chelani AB, Gajghate DG, Chalapati Rao CV, Devotta S (2010) Particle size distribution in ambient air of Delhi and its statistical analysis. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:22–27
CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board), India: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Gazette notification, New Delhi (2009)
Deshmukh DK, Tsai YI, Deb MK, Mkoma SL (2012a) Characterization of dicarboxylates and inorganic ions in urban PM10 aerosols in the eastern central India. Aerosol Air Qual Res 12:592–607
Deshmukh DK, Deb MK, Hopke PK, Tsai YI (2012b) Seasonal characteristics of water-soluble dicarboxylates associated with PM10 in the urban atmosphere of Durg City, India. Aerosol Air Qual Res. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2012.02.0040
Gugamsetty B, Wei H, Liu CN, Awasthi A, Tsai CJ, Roam GD, Wu YC, Chen CF (2012) Source characterization and apportionment of PM10, PM2.5, PM1 using positive matrix factorization in Shinjung station Taiwan. Aerosol Air Qual Res, doi: 10.4909/aaqr.2012.04.0084
Guo Y, Zhang J, Wang S, She F, Li X (2012) Long-tern characterization of major water-soluble inorganic ions in PM10 in coastal site on the Japan Sea. Atmos Chem. doi:10.1007/s10874-012-9223-8
Gupta I, Salunkhe A, Kumar R (2012) Source apportionment of PM10 by positive matrix factorization in urban area of Mumbai. India Sci World J. doi:10.1100/2012/585791
Han YJ, Tae SK, Kim H (2008) Ionic constituents and source analysis of PM2.5 in three Korean cities. Atmos Environ 42:4735–4746
Huang L, Wang K, Yuan CS, Wang G (2010) Study on the seasonal variation and source apportionment of PM10 in Harbin, China. Aerosol Air Qual Res 10:86–93
Klejnowski K, Pastuszka JS, Krasa A (2012) Mass size distribution and chemical composition of the surface layer of summer and winter airborne particles in Zabrze, Poland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:255–259
Mauli PC, Mohan V, Reddy J (2006) Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols (PM10) at a semi-arid urban site: influence of terrestrial sources. Environ Monit Assess 117:291–305
Mohanraj R, Solaraj G, Dhanakumar S (2011) PM2.5 and PAH concentrations in urban atmosphere of Tiruchirappalli, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87:330–335
Nicolas JF, Galindo N, Yubero E, Pastor C, Esclapez R, Crespo J (2009) Aerosol inorganic ions in a semiarid region on the southeastern Mediterranean coast. Water Air Soil Pollut 201:149–159
Pandey P, Khan AH, Verma AK, Singh KN, Mathur N, Kisku GC, Barman SC (2012) Seasonal trends of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air and their correlation in ambient air of Lucknow city, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:265–270
Pipalatkar PP, Gajghate DG, Khaparde VV (2012) Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:260–264
Pope CA (2000) Review: epidemiological basis for particulate air pollution health standards. Aerosol Sci Technol 32:4–14
Singh R, Sharma BS (2011) Composition, seasonal variation, and sources of PM10 from world heritage site Taj Mahal, Agra. Environ Monit Assess. doi:10.1007/s10661-011-2392-0
Stone E, Schauer J, Quraishi TA, Mahmood A (2010) Chemical characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in Lahore, Pakistan. Atmos Environ 44:1062–1070
Sun Y, Zhuang G, Wang Y, Han L, Guo J, Dan M, Zhang W, Wang Z, Hao Z (2004) The air-born particulate pollution in Beijing—concentration, composition, distribution and sources. Atmos Environ 38:5991–6004
Tsai YI (2005) Atmospheric visibility trends in an urban area in Taiwan 1961–2003. Atmos Environ 39:5555–5567
USEPA (2002) Volatile organic compound (VOC)/particulate matter (PM) speciation data system. USEPAQAQPS research triangle park, north California
Wang G, Wang H, Yajuan Y, Gao S, Gao S, Wang L (2003) Chemical characterization of water-soluble components of PM10 and PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols in five locations of Nanjing, China. Atmos Environ 37:2893–2902
Wang Y, Zhuang G, Zhang X, Huang K, Xu C, Tang A, Chen J, An Z (2006) The ion chemistry, seasonal cycle and sources of PM2.5 and TSP aerosol in Shanghai. Atmos Environ 40:2935–2952
World health organization (WHO) (2005) Air quality guidelines global update published by world health organization. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/Documents/E87950.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2012
The authors would like to thank Prof. K.S. Patel, the Head of the School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India, for providing laboratory support.
About this article
Cite this article
Deshmukh, D.K., Tsai, Y.I., Deb, M.K. et al. Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ionic Species Associated with PM10 Particles in the Ambient Air of Central India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 1091–1097 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0806-5
- Atmospheric aerosols
- Water-soluble ions
- Seasonal variation
- Source identification