Skip to main content

Effects of Paclobutrazol Exposure on Antioxidant Defense System in Sebastiscus marmoratus


This study was conducted to detect the effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) at environmental concentration on the antioxidant defense system in Sebastiscus marmoratus. Fish were exposed to concentrations of PBZ (10, 100, 1,000 ng/L) for 50 days. The results showed: (1) The glutathione contents in the liver and brain were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. (2) The activities of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and catalase in liver and brain were inhibited as the increase of PBZ concentration. A highest 2.16-fold (p = 0.05) and 11.54-fold (p < 0.001) reduction of GST activity in the liver and brain respectively was observed in 1,000 μg/L group. (3) The activities of glutathione peroxidase in liver were inhibited. These results suggest that the exposure of PBZ would influence the antioxidant ability of S. marmoratus.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Beers RF, Sizer IW (1952) A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 195:133–140

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Bradford MMA (1976) Rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Chem 72:248–254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Castillo LE, Martinez E, Ruepert C, Savage C, Gilek M, Pinnock M, Solis E (2006) Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica. Sci Total Environ 367:418–432

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Ding F, Song WH, Guo J, Gao ML, Hu WX (2009) Oxidative stress and structure-activity relationship in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under exposure to paclobutrazol. J Environ Sci Health B 44:44–50

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Egaas E, Sandvik M, Fjeld E, Kallqvist T, Goksøyr A, Svensen A (1999) Some effects of the fungicide propiconazole on cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Comp Biochem Physiol C 122:337–344

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249:7130–7139

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Hafeman DG, Sunde RA, Hoekstra WG (1973) Effect of dietary selenium and erythrocyte and liver glutathione peroxidase in the rat. J Nutr 104:580

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hissin PJ, Hilf RA (1976) Fluorometric method for determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in tissues. Anal Chem 74:214–226

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Konwick BJ, Garrison AW, Avants JK, Fisk AT (2006) Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of chiral triazole fungicides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol 80:372–381

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Li ZH, Zlabek V, Grabic R, Li P, Randak T (2010a) Modulation of glutathione-related antioxidant defense system of fish chronically treated by the fungicide propiconazole. Comp Biochem Physiol C 152:392–398

    Google Scholar 

  11. Li ZH, Zlabek V, Li P, Grabic R, Velisek J, Machova J, Randak T (2010b) Biochemical and physiological responses in liver and muscle of rainbow trout after long-term exposure to propiconazole. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1391–1396

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Li ZH, Zlabek V, Grabic R, Li P, Machova J, Velisek J, Randak T (2010c) Effects of exposure to sublethal propiconazole on the antioxidant defense system and Na+–K+–ATPase activity in brain of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquat Toxicol 98:297–303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Li JS, Sun LB, Zuo ZH, Chen M, Geng H, Wang CG (2012) Exposure to paclobutrazol disrupts spermatogenesis in male Sebastiscus marmoratus. Aquat Toxicol 122–123:120–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Livingstone DR (1988) Responses of microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity and cytochrom P-450 in digestive glands of Mytilus edulis and Littorea to enviromental and experimental exposure to pollutants. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 46:37–43

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Pandey S, Parvez S, Ansari RA, Ali M, Kaur M, Hayat F, Ahmad F, Raisuddin S (2008) Effects of exposure to multiple trace metals on biochemical, histologicaland ultrastructural features of gills of a freshwater fish, Channa punctata Bloch. Chem Biol Interact 174:183–192

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Van De Steene JC, Lambert WE (2008) Validation of a solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography—electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of nine basic pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface water samples. J Chromatogr A 1182:153–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Van der Oost R, Beyer J, Vermeulen NPE (2003) Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13:57–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China (20100121110005).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chonggang Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, J., Sun, L., Zuo, Z. et al. Effects of Paclobutrazol Exposure on Antioxidant Defense System in Sebastiscus marmoratus . Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 723–726 (2012).

Download citation


  • Pesticide
  • Paclobutrazol
  • Antioxidant defense system
  • Marine fish