Fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and macrolides were analyzed in soil samples collected from suburban areas in Tianjin, China. Fluoroquinolones were the predominant class of antibiotics. The mean total concentration of fluoroquinolones (33.56 μg/kg) was 30-fold higher than one of macrolides, which were the second dominant class antibiotics. Sulfonamides showed the lowest level in soil. The spatial distribution of fluoroquinolones showed wastewater irrigation was a potential source of antibiotics. The individual antibiotics levels were all below the trigger value (100 μg/kg) set by the Steering Committee of Veterinary International Committee, indicating the low risk for organisms in the agricultural soils of Tianjin.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Golet EM, Xifra I, Siegrist H, Alder AC, Giger W (2003) Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil. Environ Sci Technol 37:3243–3249
Hu X, Zhou Q, Luo Y (2010) Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China. Environ Pollut 158:2992–2998
Jimenez B, Chavez A (2008) Water reclamation and reuse around the world. In: Jimenez B, Asano T (eds) Water reuse: an international survey of current practice issues and needs. IWA Publishing, London
Karci A, Balcioğlu IA (2009) Investigation of the tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds in animal manure and agricultural soils in Turkey. Sci Total Environ 407:4652–4664
Knapp CW, Dolfing J, Ehlert PAI, Graham DW (2010) Evidence of increasing antibiotic resistance gene abundances in archived soils since 1940. Environ Sci Technol 44:580–587
Li YW, Wu XL, Mo CH, Tai YP, Huang XP, Xiang L (2011) Investigation of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and quinolone antibiotics in vegetable farmland soil in the Pearl River Delta area, Southern China. J Agric Food Chem 59:7268–7276
Luo Y, Xu L, Rysz M, Wang Y, Zhang H, Alvarez PJJ (2011) Occurrence and transport of tetracycline, sulfonamide, quinolone, and macrolide antibiotics in the Haihe River basin, China. Environ Sci Technol 45:1827–1833
Martínez-Carballo E, González-Barreiro C, Scharf S, Gans O (2007) Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria. Environ Pollut 148:570–579
McArdell CS, Molnar E, Suter MJF, Giger W (2003) Occurrence and fate of macrolide antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants and in the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland. Environ Sci Technol 37:5479–5486
Picó Y, Andreu V (2007) Fluoroquinolones in soil-risks and challenges. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:1287–1299
Shi R, Lv J, Cai Y, Liu Y, Wang Z, Feng J (2010) Levels, spatial distribution and possible sources of heavy metals contamination of suburban soils in Tianjin, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:287–290
Tamtam F, Oort F, Bot BL, Dinh T, Mompelat S, Chevreuil M, Lamy I, Thiry M (2011) Assessing the fate of antibiotic contaminants in metal contaminated soils four years after cessation of long-term waste water irrigation. Sci Total Environ 409:540–547
Tong C, Zhou X, Guo Y (2011) Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China. J Agric Food Chem 59:7303–7309
Zhou L, Ying G, Zhao J, Yang J, Wang L, Yang B, Liu S (2011) Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River Hai River and Liao River in Northern China. Environ Pollut 159:1877–1885
This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20837003, 20890111) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB421605).
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Shi, Y., Gao, L., Li, W. et al. Investigation of Fluoroquinolones, Sulfonamides and Macrolides in Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation Soil in Tianjin, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 857–861 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0761-1