Fifty Vegetable samples (Beans, Brinjal, Cabbage and Carrot) grown in Kolar district of Karnataka, India were analysed for 20 pesticide residues by gas liquid chromatography equipped with ECD and FTD. Recovery studies were performed at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg −1 fortification levels of each compound and the recoveries obtained ranged from 73.0 % to 96.6 % with relative standard deviations lower than 7.5 %. The method showed good linearity over the range assessed 0.01–1.0 mg Kg−1 with correlation coefficient >0.998 and the detection and quantification limits for the pesticides studied varied from 0.0001 to 0.002 mg Kg−1and 0.0001–0.001 mg Kg−1, respectively. All the samples were found to be contaminated, the organo chlorines (97 %) dominated followed by organophosphates (83 %) and pyrethroids (60 %). However, 58 % of the samples were found to contain the residues of these insecticides above their respective maximum residue limits (MRL). It is therefore proposed to perform extensive monitoring studies covering all the vegetable crops from different agro-climatic regions of the Karnataka to know the exact status of pesticide contamination.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Agnihotri NP (1999) Pesticide safety evaluation and monitoring. All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Pesticide Residues, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp. 132–142
AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, 17th edn. AOAC International, Maryland
Battu RS, Joia BS (2006) Status of contamination of market samples of okra from Ludhiana, Punjab with pesticide residues. J Insect Sci 19:185–189
Bhanti M, Shukla G, Taneja A (2004) Contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides and farmers’ knowledge, perception, practices in rural India – a case study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 73:787–793
Chahal KK, Singh B, Kang BK, Battu RS, Joia BS (1997) Insecticide residues in farm gate vegetable samples in Punjab. Pesticide Res J 9:256–260
Chahal KK, Singh B, Battu RS, Kang BK (1999) Monitoring of farm gate vegetables for insecticide residues in Punjab. Indian J Ecol 26:50–55
Deka SC, Barman N, Baruah AALH (2005) Pesticidal contamination status in farm gate vegetables in Assam, India. Pesticide Res J 17:90–93
Fytianos K, Vasilikiotis G, Weil L, Kavlendis E, Laskaridis N (1985) Preliminary study of organochlorine compounds in milk products, human milk and vegetable. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34:504–508
Gupta A, Singh B, Parihar NS, Bhatnagar A (1998) Pesticide residues in the farm gate samples of bottle gourd, cauliflower, cabbage and fenugreek at Jaipur. Pesticide Res J 10(1):86–90
Hill ARC, Reynolds SL (1999) Guideline for in-house validation of analytical methods for pesticide residues in food and animal feeds. Analyst 124:953–958
Kole RK, Banerjee H, Bhattacharya A (2002) Monitoring of pesticide residues in farm gate vegetables in West Bengal. Pesticide Res J 14:77–82
Kumari B, Kumar R, Kathpal TS (2001) An improvedmultiresidue procedure for determination of 30 pesticides in vegetables. Pesticide Res J 13(1):32–35
Kumari B, Kumar R, Madan VK, Singh J, Kathpal TS (2003) Monitoring of pesticidal contamination in winter vegetables from Hisar, Haryana. Environ Monit Assess 87:311–318
Madan VK, Kumari B, Singh RV, Kumar R, Kathpal TS (1996) Monitoring of pesticide from farmgate samples of vegetables in Haryana. Pesticide Res J 8(1):56–60
Mukherjee I, Gopal M (1996) Insecticide Residues in baby food, animal feed, and vegetables by gas liquid chromatography. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56:381–388
Nakamura Y, Tonogai Y, Sekiguchi Y, Tsumura Y, Nishida N, Takakura K, Isechi M, Yuasa K, Nakamura M, Kifune N, Yamamoto K, Terasewa S, Oshima T, Miyata M, Kamakura K, Ito Y (1994) Multi-residue analysis of 48 pesticides in agricultural products by capillary gas chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 42:2508–2518
Nguyen TD, Yu JI, Lee DM, Lee GH (2008) A multi residue method for the determination of 107 pesticides in cabbage and radish using QuEChERS sample preparation method and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Food Chem 110:207–213
Parihar NS, Bhatnagar A, Singh B, Gupta A (1997) Monitoring of pesticide residues in farmgate samples of brinjal at Jaipur. Pesticide Res J 9(1):130–132
Paschoal JAR, Rath S, Airoldi FPS, Reyes FGR (2008) Validação de métodos cromatográficos para a determinac¸ão de resíduos de medicamentos veterina′rios em alimentos (Validation of chromatographic methods for the determination of residues of veterinary drugs in foods). Quim Nova 31:1190–1198
Sharma KK (2007) ‘Pesticide residue analysis manual’ Network coordinator, All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Pesticide Residues, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp. 183–196
Shah PG, Raj MF, Patel BA, Patel BK, Diwan KD, Patel JA, Talati JG (2000) Pesticidal contamination status in farm gate vegetables in Gujrat. Pesticide Res J 12(2):95–99
Tao CJ, Hu JY, Li JZ, Zheng SS, Liu W, Li CJ (2009) Multi-residue determination of pesticides in vegetables by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82:111–115
The authors are thankful to the authorities of University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India and V.V. Pura College of Science, Bangalore, India for encouragement and providing the necessary facilities for the research under Faculty Improvement Programme (FIP) scheme.
About this article
Cite this article
Ananda Gowda, S.R., Somashekar, R.K. Evaluation of Pesticide Residues in Farmgate Samples of Vegetables in Karnataka, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 626–632 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0737-1
- Maximum residue limit (MRL)