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Estimation of Biodiesel Cytotoxicity by Using Acid Phosphatase as a Biomarker of Lysosomal Integrity

Abstract

Biodiesel is promoted as environmentally less harmful than diesel fuel. Nevertheless its water-soluble-fraction (WSF) may contain methanol, which appears by a reversion of the transesterification reaction, when biodiesel contacts water. This paper evaluated the loss of the lysosomal membrane integrity in liver homogenate of juvenils Tilapia exposed to biodiesels-WSF, through the increase of the acid phosphatase activity, as an evidence of citotoxicity. Differences in the enzyme activity levels (3.4, 2.3 and 0.8 mU mg−1 total protein over the control value, which was 1.6 mU mg−1 total protein), found for castor oil, waste cooking-oil and palm oil-biodiesels, respectively, were indicative of their toxicity according to this decreasing trend. WSF-chromatograms suggest the cytotoxicity as related to methanol.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to CNPQ (National Research Council) for funding this research (GRANTS 574712-2008-9 and 551134/2010-0), to Dr. Heiddy Márquez Alvarez for the CG analysis, to Dr. Fabio Alexandre Chinalia for the helpful discussions on the technique as far as to Dr. Kestur Satyanarayana, Visiting Researcher, PIPE/UFPR, Curitiba, and to Dr. Bianca Forte, Biofuels Coordinator for Renewables East, U.K., for reviewing the paper for Language corrections.

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Correspondence to Iracema Andrade Nascimento.

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da Cruz, A.C.S., Leite, M.B.N.L., Rodrigues, L.E.A. et al. Estimation of Biodiesel Cytotoxicity by Using Acid Phosphatase as a Biomarker of Lysosomal Integrity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 219–224 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0707-7

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Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Lysosomal biomarker
  • Acid phosphatase