Detections of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid in Surface Waters of Three Agricultural Regions of California, USA, 2010–2011

Article

Abstract

Seventy-five surface water samples were collected from three agricultural regions of California and analyzed for the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Samples were collected during California’s relatively dry-weather irrigation seasons in 2010 and 2011. Imidacloprid was detected in 67 samples (89%); concentrations exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic invertebrate Aquatic Life Benchmark of 1.05 μg/L in 14 samples (19%). Concentrations were also frequently greater than similar toxicity guidelines developed for use in Europe and Canada. The results indicate that imidacloprid commonly moves offsite and contaminates surface waters at concentrations that could harm aquatic organisms following use under irrigated agriculture conditions in California.

Keywords

Imidacloprid Surface water Pesticide mixtures Agriculture 

References

  1. Casida JE (2011) Neonicotinoid metabolism: compounds, substituents, pathways, enzymes, organisms, and relevance. J Agric Food Chem 59:2923–2931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CCME (2007) Canadian water quality guidelines: imidacloprid scientific supporting document. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Accessed 9 Nov 2011. http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/imidacloprid_ssd_1388.pdf
  3. CDFA (2008) Determination of imidacloprid and the olefinic imidacloprid, guanidine, olefinic guanidine, urea metabolites. Accessed 14 Nov 2011. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/anl_methds/imeth_308.pdf
  4. CDPR (2011) California pesticide use data. CDPR. Accessed 23 Nov 2011 http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pur/purmain.htm
  5. Jeschke P, Nauen R, Schindler M, Elbert A (2011) Overview of the status and global strategy for neonicotinoids. J Agric Food Chem 59:2897–2908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kreuger J, Graaf S, Patring J, Adieslsson S (2010) Pesticides in surface water in areas with open ground and greenhouse horticultural crops in Sweden 2008. Swed Univ Agric Sci Accessed 20 Nov 2011. http://www-mv.slu.se/webfiles/vv/CKB/Ekohydrologi_117_ENG.pdf
  7. Lamers M, Anyusheva M, La N, Nguten V, Streck T (2011) Pesticide pollution in surface- and groundwater by paddy rice cultivation: a case study from Northern Vietnam. Clean Soil Air Water 39:356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Loureiro S, Svendsen C, Ferreira ALG, Pinheiro C, Ribeiro F, Soares AMVM (2010) Toxicity of three binary mixtures to Daphnia magna: comparing chemical modes of action and deviations from conceptual models. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:1716–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. NIPHE (2008) Environmental risk limits for imidacloprid. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands. Accessed 20 Nov 2011. http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/601716018.pdf
  10. Phillips JP, Bode RW (2004) Pesticides in surface water runoff in south-eastern New York State, USA. Pest Manage Sci 60:531–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Segawa R (1995) Chemistry laboratory quality control. QAQC001.00. Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, CA. Accessed 3 Nov 2011. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/sops/qaqc001.pdf
  12. Starner K, Spurlock F, Kelley K, Goh KS (2011) Pesticides in surface waters from agricultural regions of California 2006–2007. CDPR. Accessed 20 Nov 2011. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/ehapreps.htm?filter=surfwater
  13. US EPA (2008) Problem formulation for imidacloprid environmental fate and ecological risk assessment. US EPA, Washington, DC. Accessed 2 Nov 2011. http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0081-0108
  14. US EPA (2011) Aquatic life benchmarks. Accessed 20 Nov 2011. http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/ecorisk_ders/aquatic_life_benchmark.htm
  15. USGS (2011) NAWQA data warehouse. Accessed 15 Nov 2011. http://infotrek.er.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=NAWQA:HOME:0
  16. van Djik TC (2010) Effects of neonicotinoid pesticide pollution of Dutch surface water on non-target species abundance. Accessed 10 Nov 2011. http://www.bijensterfte.nl/sites/default/files/FinalThesisTvD.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California Department of Pesticide RegulationEnvironmental Monitoring BranchSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations