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Assessment of Metal Pollution in Soils From a Former Havana (Cuba) Solid Waste Open Dump


Concentrations of cobalt, nickel, cooper, zinc and lead in the top-soils (0–10 cm) from a former Havana solid waste open dump were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean metal contents in the dump topsoil samples (in mg kg−1: 8.4 ± 2.7 for cobalt, 50 ± 27 for nickel, 252 ± 80 for copper, 489 ± 230 for zinc and 276 ± 140 for lead) were compared with mean concentrations from Havana urban soils and from other solid waste disposals around the world. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a serious cooper contamination and a slight contamination with the rest of determined metals. The values of the integrated pollution index (mean index = 3.5) indicated that dump soils are highly contaminated by metals, and the enrichment index values shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are above the permissible levels for urban agriculture.

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Díaz Rizo, O., Hernández Merlo, M., Echeverría Castillo, F. et al. Assessment of Metal Pollution in Soils From a Former Havana (Cuba) Solid Waste Open Dump. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88, 182–186 (2012).

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  • Urban soils
  • Metal pollution
  • Solid waste dump
  • Havana
  • Cuba