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Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment and Source Apportionment of Selected Metals in Source Freshwater Khanpur Lake, Pakistan

Abstract

Selected metals (calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, lead, strontium and zinc) were measured in water samples from a source freshwater Lake. Average levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium and lead in the waters were significantly higher than the guideline values. Health risk assessment was then carried out to determine health risk via oral route and dermal contact. Hazard quotient (via ingestion) levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium and lead were higher than unity; suggesting potential adverse effects on local residents. Principal component analysis revealed considerable anthropogenic contributions of the metals in the water reservoir.

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Acknowledgments

The financial assistance provided by Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan to carry out this project is thankfully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Munir H. Shah.

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Iqbal, J., Tirmizi, S.A. & Shah, M.H. Non-carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment and Source Apportionment of Selected Metals in Source Freshwater Khanpur Lake, Pakistan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88, 177–181 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0480-z

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Keywords

  • Freshwater
  • Risk Assessment
  • Metal
  • Multivariate Analysis