Metals in soils and vegetables irrigated with untreated municipal/industrial effluent, from four cities of Pakistan (Gujranwala, Sialkot, Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas) were assessed. The cadmium, copper, lead and chromium concentrations in the municipal/industrial effluent from all sites were above the recommended permissible limits. Similarly, cadmium, lead and nickel concentrations in almost all the soil samples were above the recommended permissible limits with chromium higher than the recommended permissible limits in 62% soils and copper higher in 26%. Cadmium and chromium concentrations were above the recommended permissible limits in all the examined vegetables and lead was exceeded in 90% of vegetables.
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The research work was financially supported by the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through the ‘Research for Agricultural Development Program’. We thank Ghulam Haider, Riaz Ahmad and Ishfaq Ahmad for assistance in laboratory and field work. We are grateful to the Professor Dr. P. J. Gregory for syntax improvement of this paper.
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Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M., Suthor, V., Rafique, E. et al. Metal Contamination of Vegetables Grown on Soils Irrigated with Untreated Municipal Effluent. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88, 204–209 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0432-7
- Municipal/industrial effluent