Skip to main content

Relationship Between Gonad Maturation and Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana

Abstract

The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r2 = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r2 = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r2 = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r2 = 0.1730).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Adjei-Boateng D, Wilson JG (In press) Gametogenic development and spawning in the freshwater clam Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta River, Ghana. Aqua Res

  2. Blackmore G, Wang WX (2003) Comparison of metal accumulation in mussels at different local and global scales. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(2):388–395

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Boyden CR, Phillips DJH (1981) Seasonal variation and inherent variability of trace elements in oysters and their implications for indicator studies. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 5:29–40

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Chiu ST, Lam FS, Tze WL, Chau CW, Ye DY (2000) Trace metals in mussel from mariculture zones, Hong Kong. Chemosphere 41:101–108

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Chong K, Wang W-X (2001) Comparative studies on the biokinetics of Cd, Cr, and Zn in the green mussel Perna viridis and the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Environ Pollut 115:107–121

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cossa D, Rondeau JG (1985) Seasonal, geographical and size induced variability in mercury content of Mytilus edulis in an estuarine environment: a re-assessment of mercury pollution level in the Estuary and gulf of St. Lawreence. Mar Biol 88:43–49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Cunningham PA, Tripp MR (1975) Factors affecting accumulation and removal of mercury from tissues of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Mar Biol 31:311–319

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Etim LE (1990) Annual variation in proximate composition and condition index of Egeria radiata (Bivalvia : Tellinacea : Donacidae) from Cross River in Nigeria. Nig J Tech Res 2:95–98

    Google Scholar 

  9. Etim L, Akpan ER, Muller P (1991) Temporal trends in heavy metal concentrations in the clam E. radiata (Bivalvia: Tellinacea Donacidae) from the Cross River, Nigeria. Rev Hydrobiol Trop 24(4):327–333

    Google Scholar 

  10. Fowler SW, Oregioni B (1976) Trace metals in mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean. Mar Pollut Bull 7:26–29

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Galstoff P (1964) The American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Fish Bull Fish Wildl Serv 64:1–480

    Google Scholar 

  12. Jin Q, Liang F, Zhang H, Zhao L, Huan Y, Song D (1999) Application of microwave techniques in analytical chemistry. Trac Trends Anal Chem 18(7):479–484

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Joiris CR, Azokwu MI, Otchere FA, Ali IB (1998) Mercury in the bivalve Anadara (Senilia) senilis from Ghana and Nigeria. Sci Total Environ 224:181–188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. King RP, Udoidoing OM (1991) Perspectives in the development and conservation of freshwater fisheries resources of the Cross River, Nigeria. Trans Ni Soc Biol Conserv 2:7–16

    Google Scholar 

  15. Latouche YD, Mix MC (1982) The effects of depuration, size and sex on trace metal levels in Bay Mussels. Mar Pollut Bull 13(1):27–29

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. MP GESA (1982) Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine pollution, the health of the oceans. Rep Stud GESAMP 15:108

    Google Scholar 

  17. Obirikorang KA, Adjei-Boateng D, Amisah S (2009) Consumption of the Clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) in Ghana: human health implications with reference to heavy metals. Water Qual Expo Health 1:191–201

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Obirikorang KA, Amisah S, Adjei-Boateng D, Madkour HA, Otchere FA (2010) Mercury accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) at the Volta Estuary, Ghana. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:497–501

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Otchere FA, Joiris C, Holsbeek L, Ali IB, Vanderpuye CJ (2000) Heavy metals concentration and burden in the bivalves Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Perna perna and Crassostrea tulipa from Ghana. In: Nriagu J (ed) 11th annual international conference on heavy metals in the environment, contrbution number 10161. University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor

  20. Otchere FA, Joiris C, Holsbeek. L (2003) Mercury in the bivalves Anadara (Senilis) senilis, Perna perna and Crassostrea tulipa from Ghana. Sci Total Environ 304:369–375

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Páez-Osun P, Frias-Espericueta MG, Osuna-López JI (1995) Trace metal concentrations in relation to season and gonadal maturation in the oyster Crassostrea iridescens. Mar Environ Res 40(1):19–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Pan J-F, Wang WX (2004) Influences of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon on the uptake of Ag, Cd, and Cr by the marine mussel Perna viridis. Environ Pollut 129:467–477

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Perera P (2004) Heavy metal concentrations in the Pacific oyster; Crassostrea gigas. Thesis submitted to the Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

  24. Phelps HL, Wright DA, Mihursky JA (1985) Factors affecting trace metal accumulation by estuarine oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 22:187–197

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Phillips DJH (1976) The common mussel, Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. Effects of environmental variables on uptake of metals. Mar Biol 38:59–69

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Phillips DJH, Rainbow PS (1994) Biomonitoring of trace aquatic contaminants, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London

    Google Scholar 

  27. Phillips DJH, Yim WW-S (1981) A comparative evaluation of oysters, mussels and sediments as indicators of trace metals in Hong Kong waters. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 6:285–293

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Regoli F (1998) Trace metals and antioxidant enzymes in gills and digestive gland of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34:48–63

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Riget F, Johanson P, Asmund G (1996) Influence of length on element concentrations in Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mar Pollut Bull 32(10):745–751

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Saavedra Y, Gonzalez A, Fernandez P, Blanco J (2004) The effect of size on trace metal levels in raft cultivated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Sci Total Environ 318:115–124

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Sokolowski A, Richard P, Fichet D, Radenac G, Guyot T (2003) Application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to extraction of soft body for the determination of tissue Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant). Mar Pollut Bull 46:1326–1333

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. United Kingdom Environmental Agency (2008) Using science to create a better place- Environmental quality standards for trace metals in the aquatic environment Science Report—SC030194

  33. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1994) Sediment Sampling. SOP#: 2016

  34. WHO (2000) Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO food additives series, vol 44. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  35. Zooragian GE (1980) Crassostrea virginica as an indicator of cadmium pollution. Mar Biol 58:275–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the International Foundation for Science (IFS) for providing financial support (A/4421-1) to conduct this research work and the Department of Fisheries and Watershed Management of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi for logistical support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. Adjei-Boateng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adjei-Boateng, D., Obirikorang, K.A., Amisah, S. et al. Relationship Between Gonad Maturation and Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 626–632 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0417-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Reproductive cycle
  • Galatea paradoxa
  • Heavy metals
  • Volta estuary