Skip to main content

Emissions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was estimation of PCDD/PCDFs emissions from various sources in Iran. The results indicated total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran in 2010, was 1,957 g TEQ. Of this amount, about 705.8, 0.5, 463.5, 144.1 and 643.2 g TEQ/year was released to air, water, land, products, and in residues, respectively. Open burning processes and metal production are the major contributors to be known environmental sources of PCDD/PCDFs that contribute to about 70% of total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran. The results showed that total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran per inhabitant were about 26.5 g TEQ/million that is high relatively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Ba T, Zheng MH, Zhang B, Liu WB, Xiao K, Zhang LF (2009) Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from secondary copper and aluminum metallurgies in China. Chemosphere 75:1173–1178

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. UNEP Chemicals (2005) Standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases, 2 ed. UNEP Chemicals, Geneva. Available via. http://www.pops.int/documents/guidance/toolkit/en/Toolkit_2005_En.pdf. Accessed Feb 2005

  3. Cheng H, Hub Y (2010) Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices. Environ Pollut 158:2809–2814

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Dyke P, Coleman P, James R (1997) Dioxins in ambient air, bonfire night 1994. Chemosphere 34:1191–1201

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Kulkarni PS, Crespo JG, Afonso CAM (2008) Dioxins sources and current remediation technologies—a review. Environ Int 34:139–153

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Llobet JM, Domingo JL, Bocio A, Casas C (2003) Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk. Chemosphere 50:1193–1200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Pulles T, Kok H, Pesik J (2004) Dioxin emissions in the Haifa region, TNO Report No. R 2004/016, TNO Apeldoorn. Available via. http://www.envihaifa.org.il/heb/dioxins012004.pdf. Accessed May 2004

  8. Wu YL, Lin LF, Hsieh LT, Lin C, Chang-Chien GP (2009) Atmospheric dry deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators. J Hazard Mater 162:521–529

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Zhang B, Meng F, Shi C, Yang F, Wen D, Aronsson J, Gbor PK, Sloan JJ (2009) Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in North America. Atmos Environ 43:2204–2212

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amir Hossein Mahvi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Momeniha, F., Nabizadeh, R., Hassanvand, M.S. et al. Emissions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 708–712 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0392-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Persistent organic pollutants
  • Dioxins
  • Furans
  • Emission
  • Iran