The aim of this study was estimation of PCDD/PCDFs emissions from various sources in Iran. The results indicated total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran in 2010, was 1,957 g TEQ. Of this amount, about 705.8, 0.5, 463.5, 144.1 and 643.2 g TEQ/year was released to air, water, land, products, and in residues, respectively. Open burning processes and metal production are the major contributors to be known environmental sources of PCDD/PCDFs that contribute to about 70% of total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran. The results showed that total PCDD/PCDFs emissions in Iran per inhabitant were about 26.5 g TEQ/million that is high relatively.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ba T, Zheng MH, Zhang B, Liu WB, Xiao K, Zhang LF (2009) Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from secondary copper and aluminum metallurgies in China. Chemosphere 75:1173–1178
UNEP Chemicals (2005) Standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases, 2 ed. UNEP Chemicals, Geneva. Available via. http://www.pops.int/documents/guidance/toolkit/en/Toolkit_2005_En.pdf. Accessed Feb 2005
Cheng H, Hub Y (2010) Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices. Environ Pollut 158:2809–2814
Dyke P, Coleman P, James R (1997) Dioxins in ambient air, bonfire night 1994. Chemosphere 34:1191–1201
Kulkarni PS, Crespo JG, Afonso CAM (2008) Dioxins sources and current remediation technologies—a review. Environ Int 34:139–153
Llobet JM, Domingo JL, Bocio A, Casas C (2003) Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk. Chemosphere 50:1193–1200
Pulles T, Kok H, Pesik J (2004) Dioxin emissions in the Haifa region, TNO Report No. R 2004/016, TNO Apeldoorn. Available via. http://www.envihaifa.org.il/heb/dioxins012004.pdf. Accessed May 2004
Wu YL, Lin LF, Hsieh LT, Lin C, Chang-Chien GP (2009) Atmospheric dry deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators. J Hazard Mater 162:521–529
Zhang B, Meng F, Shi C, Yang F, Wen D, Aronsson J, Gbor PK, Sloan JJ (2009) Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in North America. Atmos Environ 43:2204–2212
About this article
Cite this article
Momeniha, F., Nabizadeh, R., Hassanvand, M.S. et al. Emissions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 708–712 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0392-y
- Persistent organic pollutants