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Norflurazon and Simazine Removal from Surface Water Using a Constructed Wetland

Abstract

Norflurazon and simazine are pre-emergent herbicides detected frequently in surface water associated with South Florida agricultural canals and drainage water. This study investigated the potential use of a 1.34 ha constructed wetland for removing these herbicides from surface water. The total length of the wetland was 400 m and width was 35 m. A surface water flow rate of 740 L/min was maintained in the system using a pump. The plant community within the system consisted primarily of Panicum repens, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and Bacopa caroliniana. Norflurazon and simazine, derived from commercial formulations, were injected (51.1 g active ingredient each) directly into the water pumped into the wetland over a 2 h period. Water samples were collected from the wetland upstream of the dosing system at 3 h intervals from the beginning through 360 h and at the exit point at 1, 2, and 3 h intervals for the periods of 0–24, 25–48 and 49–360 h after dosing, respectively. The herbicides were extracted using C-18 cartridges and were analyzed by GC-TSD. The total mass of each herbicide discharged from the system was estimated by multiplying the concentration by the total volume discharged during the sampled period. Neither herbicide was detected in the inflow water during the entire study. Norflurazon was first detected at the exit 19 h after dosing and simazine after 23 h. Discharge patterns of the two herbicides differed dramatically. Norflurazon tended to bleed off from the wetland with no distinct peak concentration. However, the mobile fraction of simazine was discharged over a 58 h period. Mean/maximum/median detectable concentrations of the herbicides were 3.9 ± 1.7/8.1/3.4 μg L−1 for norflurazon, and 11.9 ± 6.8/23.6/12.0 μg L−1 for simazine, respectively. The total masses of norflurazon and simazine discharged from the exit during the 15 day study were 51.7 and 26.9 g, indicating 0% and 47.4% removal from the surface water by the system.

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Correspondence to P. Chris Wilson.

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Chris Wilson, P., Lu, H. & Lin, Y. Norflurazon and Simazine Removal from Surface Water Using a Constructed Wetland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 426 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0380-2

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Keywords

  • Triazine
  • Pyridazinone
  • Herbicide
  • Remediation
  • Wetland