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Enrichment Factor and Profiles of Elemental Composition of PM 2.5 in the City of Guadalajara, Mexico

Abstract

In this study, the Enrichment Factors and elemental composition profiles of the PM2.5 were used to suggest the emission sources. The selected sites were Miravalle and Centro, and in both cases there were high values lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Cupper, Molybdenum, Nickel, Antimony, Selenium and Zinc for EF (>5), suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The remaining elements (Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Strontium and Titanium) had Enrichment Factors <5, attributable to a geological origin, probably due to the suspension of particles from motor vehicles or wind. Comparing the elemental composition profiles of the two sites allowed establishing similarities with some reference profiles (SPECIATE database Version 4.2-EPA) from sources such as Paved Road Dust (PRD) and Industrial Soil (IS) and profiles of combustion sources such as Diesel Exhaust (DE). Through the estimation the Enrichment Factors and of the elemental composition profiles of two different sites in the city, it was possible to suggest not only the general type of emission source (geological or anthropogenic), but also more specific sources based on elemental composition of PM2.5.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their appreciation to Sandra Bravo and Rosalva Cuevas for their collaboration in the analysis of inorganic ions, to Winston Smith of the Peace Corps for the revision of this paper and to the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES), for allowing the installment of the equipment in their locations. Special thanks also to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for the financial support in this project.

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Correspondence to Hugo Saldarriaga-Noreña.

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Hernández-Mena, L., Murillo-Tovar, M., Ramírez-Muñíz, M. et al. Enrichment Factor and Profiles of Elemental Composition of PM 2.5 in the City of Guadalajara, Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 545 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0369-x

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Keywords

  • Enrichment factor
  • PM2.5
  • Elemental composition profiles