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Effects of Ammonium Nitrate on Larval Survival and Growth of Four Iberian Amphibians


The purpose of this study was to understand the differences in tolerance to ammonium nitrate in four Iberian amphibians. Results showed a negative effect on amphibian survival and larvae total length. Three different tolerance groups on amphibian survival were established. The two first groups showed a higher reduction, around 90% and between 70 and 80% after 96 h exposition at the maximum concentration tested (180 mg NH4NO3/L), while the third group showed no mortality in any concentration tested. In addition, a reduction in larvae total length was also detected for all four species, with Bufo bufo as the most sensitive species.

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This study was supported by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (Spain) project (CGL2007-61482 co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund). E.G.-M. has a research grant from FCT post-doctoral program SFRH/BPD/78206/2010). Our thanks go to the C.M.A. (Junta de Andalucía) for permission to the amphibian surveys and to F. Ceacero for helpful suggestions. We also thank to anonymous referee whose helpful comments improved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Enrique García-Muñoz.

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García-Muñoz, E., Guerrero, F., Bicho, R.C. et al. Effects of Ammonium Nitrate on Larval Survival and Growth of Four Iberian Amphibians. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 16–20 (2011).

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  • Fertilizers
  • Land use
  • Interspecific tolerance
  • Sensitivity