Skip to main content
Log in

Phthalates in Toys Available in Indian Market

  • Published:
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Twenty four children’s toys and child care articles available in the local market of India were analyzed for eight phthalates as children toys are plasticized with phthalates. All toy samples showed the presence of one or more phthalates including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (96% of the samples), di-iso-nonyl phthalate and di-iso-decyl phthalate (42% of the samples) at a concentration ranging from 0.1% to 16.2%. Soft toys contain higher levels of phthalates as compared to hard toys as primary function of phthalates is softening of hard plastic materiel.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Bogen KT, Boekelheide K, Cunningham ML, Jackson BA, Peters JM, Reddy JK, Zeise L (2001) Report to the US consumer product safety commission by the chronic hazard advisory panel on diisononyl phthalate, Bethesda

  • Bouma K, Schakel DJ (2002) Migration of phthalates from PVC toys into saliva simulant by dynamic extraction. Food Addit Contam 19:602–610

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Duty SM, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, Herrick RF, Christiani DC, Hauser R (2003) Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiology 14:269–277

    Google Scholar 

  • Fiala F, Steiner I, Kubesch K (2000) Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) from PVC articles. Dtsch Lebensmitt Rundsch 96:51–57

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hitchcock L (2008) Trouble in Toyland, The 23rd Annual Survey of Toy Safety. US PIRG Educational Fund, Washington

  • Kavlock R, Boekelheide K, Chapin R, Cunningham M, Faustman E, Foste P et al (2002) NTP center for the evaluation of risks to human reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di-isononyl phthalate. Reprod Toxicol 16:679–708

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar A, Pastore P (2007) Lead and cadmium in soft plastic toys. Curr Sci 93:818–822

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niinoa T, Ishibashi T, Itho T, Sakai S, Sugitab T, Ishiwata H, Yamada T, Onoderac S (2001) Analysis of phthalate ester plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride children’s toys, after 1998. Jpn J Food Chem 8:194–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Rastogi SC (1998) Gas chromatographic analysis of phthalate esters in plastic toys. Chromatographia 47:724–726

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt CW (2008) Face to face with toy safety: understanding an unexpected threat. Environ Health Perspect 116:A71–A76

    Google Scholar 

  • Schreder E (2007) Not so squeaky clean – a study of phthalates in toys. Washington Toxics Coalition, Seattle

    Google Scholar 

  • Stringer R, Labunska I, Santillo D, Johnston P, Siddorn J, Stephenson A (2000) Concentrations of phthalate esters and identification of other additives in PVC children’s toys. Environ Sci Pollut Res 7:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Ms. Sunita Narain, Director General, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) for providing facilities, valuable advice and encouragement and Mr. Chandra Bhushan, Deputy Director General, CSE for the help in planning and execution of the work. We also thank Professors H.B. Mathur and H.C. Agarwal for their technical guidance and encouragement during the investigation.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sapna Johnson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Johnson, S., Saikia, N. & Sahu, R. Phthalates in Toys Available in Indian Market. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86, 621–626 (2011).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: