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Effect of Carbaryl on Survival and Development in Bombina orientalis (Boulenger) Embryos

Abstract

Bombina orientalis is one of the most common amphibians in the world and comprise a large proportion of their total number in Korea. B. orientalis, spawns in the farming regions at Spring when the massive application of agricultural chemicals occurs. Carbaryl, carbamate chemical is a slightly to highly toxic insecticide inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. The embryotoxicity and teratogenic effects of carbaryl on B. orientalis embryos were investigated at 5, 10, 50 and 100 μM. The survival rates of embryos at 312 h post fertilization were decreased with concentration dependent manner. Exposure to carbaryl produced 4 types of severe external abnormalities such as bent trunk, thick-set body, bent tail and ventral blister. At 5 μM carbaryl, a dose of no observed effect on embryonic survival, developmental abnormalities were significantly increased. The developmental abnormalities showed in order of frequency with bent trunk, thick-set body, bent tail and ventral blister. This result suggests that carbaryl is detrimental for embryonic survival and teratogenic by causing the axial skeletal defects in B. orientalis embryos.

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Acknowledgments

This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as “The Eco-technopia 21 project” (#091-091-025).

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Correspondence to Myung Chan Gye.

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Kang, H.S., Park, C.J. & Gye, M.C. Effect of Carbaryl on Survival and Development in Bombina orientalis (Boulenger) Embryos. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 550–553 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9979-y

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Keywords

  • Carbaryl
  • Embryo toxicity
  • Teratogenicity
  • Bombina orientalis