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Bioaccumulation of TNT and DDT in Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus L., Following Feeding of Contaminated Invertebrates


The aim of this study was to determine the potential for dietary uptake by trophic transfer using the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the substantially more hydrophobic dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) utilizing the amphipods Leptocheirus plumulosus as prey and the fish Cyprinodon variegatus as predator. Bioaccumulation did not change significantly over time for TNT but apparent steady-state was not reached for DDT at exposure termination after 7 days of dietary exposure. The bioaccumulation factor was 0.09 mg/mg for TNT and 0.34 mg/mg for DDT, confirming the low potential of TNT to bioaccumulate in fish.

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The US Navy’s Pollution Abatement Ashore Environmental Sustainability Development to Integration Program and the Environmental Quality Technology Research Program of the US Army supported this research. Permission to publish this study was granted by the Chief of Naval Operations (N456) and the Chief of Engineers.

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Correspondence to G. R. Lotufo.

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Lotufo, G.R., Blackburn, W.M. Bioaccumulation of TNT and DDT in Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus L., Following Feeding of Contaminated Invertebrates. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 545–549 (2010).

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  • TNT
  • DDT
  • Dietary uptake
  • Fish