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Mercury Concentration in 3 Species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, From South Coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran

An Erratum to this article was published on 18 November 2010


In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers of species were 1.69–3.16, 2.88–7.18 and 2.09–5.66 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury concentration hierarchy in tissues we tested was as follows: breast feather > tail feather > and liver. We found that despite its small size, Little Gull had highest (3.85–8.05 mg/kg) and Common Gull lowest (1.69–2.88 mg/kg) level of Hg in their bodies. An inverse relationship between body size and Hg levels in these Gulls was detected. Mercury in Little Gull and Black-headed Gull exceeded the 5 ppm threshold for adverse effect.

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We thank Dr. Mozhgan Savabieasfahani for support and guidance in writing this manuscript. We are also grateful to M. Davodi and H. Malvandi for scientific assistance. This work was funded by the Tarbiat Modares University of Iran.

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Correspondence to Nader Bahramifar.

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An erratum to this article can be found at

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Rajaei, F., Esmaili Sari, A., Bahramifar, N. et al. Mercury Concentration in 3 Species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, From South Coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 716–719 (2010).

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  • Mercury
  • Liver
  • Feather
  • Caspian Sea