Skip to main content

Monitoring of Fluoride in Groundwater Resources of Iran

Abstract

Fluoride concentration in groundwater resources that used as the source of drinking water in urban areas of Iran was determined. All of the groundwater wells located in urban areas were monitored in 2008. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured using SPADNS method. The nationwide mean fluoride concentration in the groundwater resources was found to be 0.47 ± 0.28 (± standard deviation) mg/L. Only in Bushehr Province, the provincial mean fluoride level in the groundwater resources was higher than the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/L (1.86 ± 0.86 mg/L). At nationwide level, the portion of extracted groundwater with fluoride concentration lower than the minimum permissible level of 0.5 mg/L, desirable fluoride range of 0.5–1.5 mg/L and elevated fluoride level was 69.2, 29.3 and 1.4%, respectively. In the areas with low fluoride content drinking water, it is recommended that fluoride is absorbed by use of high fluoride content foods and beverages. The recommendations for the circumstances with excessive fluoride content of drinking water are provision of drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by point-of-use systems, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. APHA, AWWA, WEF (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  2. Azbar N, Türkman A (2000) Defluoridation in drinking water. Water Sci Technol 42:403–407

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Chaudhary V, Sharma M, Yadav BS (2008) Assessment of water fluoride toxicity levels in northwest Rajasthan, India. Fluoride 41:212–215

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. D’Alessandro W, Bellomo S, Parello F, Brusca L, Longo M (2008) Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy). Environ Monit Assess 145:303–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Dobaradaran S, Mahvi AH, Dehdashti S, Ranjbar Vakil Abadi D (2008) Drinking water fluoride and child dental caries in Dashtestan. Fluoride 41:220–226

    Google Scholar 

  6. Fawell J, Bailey K, Chilton J, Dahi E, Fewtrell L, Magara Y (2006) Fluoride in drinking-water. IWA Publishing, London

    Google Scholar 

  7. Hillier S, Cooper C, Kellingray S, Russell G, Hughes H, Coggon D (2000) Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study. Lancet 355:265–269

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (1992) Chemical specifications of drinking water, ISIRI No. 1053, 4th ed. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Available via http://www.isiri.org/std/1053.htm. Accessed 20 Aug 2009 (in Persian)

  9. Iranian Water and Wastewater Engineering Company (2008) Annual performance report of Iranian rural water and wastewater companies in 2008. Iranian Water and Wastewater Engineering Company. Available via http://www.abfa.com/pages/amar/amalkard87-rusta.htm/. Accessed 2 Aug 2009 (in Persian)

  10. Kalinić N, Hršak J, Vadjić V, Lambaša-Belak Ž, Mihelčić V, Perković B (2005) Fluoride content in soil and vegetation. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 75:157–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mahvi AH, Zazoli MA, Younecian M, Esfandiari Y (2006) Fluoride content of Iranian black tea and tea liquor. Fluoride 39:266–268

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Meenakshi, Maheshwari RC (2006) Fluoride in drinking water and its removal. J Hazard Mater B137:456–463

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Miller-Ihli NJ, Pehrsson PR, Cutrifelli RL, Holden JM (2003) Fluoride content of municipal water in the United States: what percentage is fluoridated? J Food Compos Anal 16:621–628

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. National Geoscience Database of Iran (2009) About Iran. Available via http://www.ngdir.ir/AboutIran/AboutIran.asp. Accessed 21 Jan 2009

  15. Paoloni JD, Fiorentino CE, Sequeira ME (2003) Fluoride contamination of aquifers in the southeast subhumid pampa, Argentina. Environ Toxicol 18:317–320

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Pehrsson PR, Perry CR, Cutrufelli RC, Patterson KY, Wilger J, Haytowitz DB, Holden JM, Day CD, Himes JH, Harnack L, Levy S, Wefel J, Heilman J, Phillips KM, Rasor AS (2006) Sampling and initial findings for a study of fluoride in drinking water in the United States. J Food Compos Anal 19:S45–S52

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Poureslami HR, Khazaeli P, Noori GR (2008) Fluoride in food and water consumed in Koohbanan (Kuh-e Banan), Iran. Fluoride 41:216–219

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Prasertsom P (1998) Fluoride used for caries prevention. Fact Sheet-Dental Health 1:1–4

    Google Scholar 

  19. Siddique A, Mumtaz M, Saied S, Karim Z, Zaigham NA (2006) Fluoride concentration in drinking water of Karachi City (Pakistan). Environ Monit Assess 120:177–185

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Singh B, Gaur S, Garg VK (2007) Fluoride in drinking water and human urine in Southern Haryana, India. J Hazard Mater 144:147–151

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Suthar S, Garg VK, Jangir S, Kaur S, Goswami N, Singh S (2008) Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 145:1–6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Takahashi K, Akiniwa K, Narita K (2001) Regression analysis of cancer incidence rates and water fluoride in the USA based on IACR/IARC (WHO) Data (1978–1992). J Epidemiol 11:170–179

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. WHO (1996) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Volume 2: Health criteria and other supporting information, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  24. WHO (2006) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: incorporating first addendum, volume 1: recommendations, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are most grateful to the regional water and wastewater companies all across the country for their collaboration in this research. The authors also wish to thank all of the research team members that participated in the sampling and sample analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reza Saeedi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mesdaghinia, A., Vaghefi, K.A., Montazeri, A. et al. Monitoring of Fluoride in Groundwater Resources of Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 432–437 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9950-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fluoride
  • Groundwater
  • Defluoridation
  • Iran