Skip to main content

Elemental and Organic Carbon in Ambient Air of a Major Indian Urban Community

Abstract

Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between residential proximity to traffic sources and adverse respiratory symptoms as the Diesel Exhaust Particulate surfaces act as a site for the concentration of thousands of organic compounds. Analysis of 24 h integrated samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected at a kerb site in a major Indian urban community, heavily impacted by heavy commercial vehicles, showed elemental carbon concentrations higher (14.4–48.8 μg/m3) than organic carbon (1.7–9.2 μg/m3). The organic to elemental carbon ratio varied from 0.09 to 0.31. Average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 ranged 133–492 μg/m3 and 87–160 μg/m3, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Castro LM, Pio CA, Harrison RM, Smith DJT (1999) Carbonaceous aerosol in urban and rural European atmospheres: estimation of secondary organic carbon concentrations. Atmos Environ 33:2771–2781

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Claudia M, Huffman JA, Cubison MJ, Aiken AC, Docherty KS, Kimmel JR, Ulbrich IM, Hannigan M, Jimenez JL (2009) Characterization of primary organic aerosol emissions from meat cooking, trash burning, and motor vehicles with high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and comparison with ambient and chamber observations. Environ Sci Technol 43:2443–2449

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Dockery DW, Pope CA, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG, Speizer FE (1993) An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med 329:1753–1808

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Hamilton JF, Webb PJ, Levis AC, Hopkins JR, Smith S, Davy P (2004) Partially oxidized organic components in urban aerosol using GCXGC-TOF/MS. Atmos Chem Phys 4:1279–1290

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. He K, Yang F, Ma Y, Zhang Q, Yao X, Chan CK, Cadle S, Mulawa P, Chan T (2001) The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. Atmos Environ 35:4959–4970

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Klaassen CD (1996) Casarett and Doull’s toxicology: the basic science of poisons. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  7. Klouda GA, Filliben JJ, Parish HJ, Chow JC, Watson JG, Cary RA (2005) Reference material (RM) 8785 air particulate matter on filter media. Aerosol Sci Tech 39:173–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kwangsam N, Aniket AS, Song C, David RC III (2004) Primary and secondary carbonaceous species in the atmosphere of Western Riverside County, California. Atmos Environ 38:1345–1355

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Laden F, Hart JE, Eisen E, Davis M, Smith TJ, Speizer FE, Garshick E (2006) Lung cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort of drivers in the US trucking industry. Epidemiology 17:S173–S174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Mahlman JD (1997) Uncertainties in projections of human caused climate warming. Science 278:1416–1417

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Schwartz J (1993) Particulate air pollution and chronic respiratory disease. Environ Res 62:7–13

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Schwartz J, Dockery DW, Neas LM (1996) Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine particles? J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46:927–939

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. USEPA (1996) Air quality criteria for particulate matter. EPA/600/P-95/001aF-001cF. Washington, DC: U.S

  14. VDI 2465, Part 1 (1996) Chemical analysis of elemental carbon by extraction and thermal desorption of organic carbon. ICS 13.040.20

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Director NEERI for according permission to publish these findings. They are thankful to their colleagues at NEERI HQ and Zonal Labs for their involvement in sample collection.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Animesh Kumar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kumar, A., Deshmukh, S.U. Elemental and Organic Carbon in Ambient Air of a Major Indian Urban Community. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 319–321 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9938-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Elemental carbon
  • Organic carbon
  • PM10
  • PM2.5