Skip to main content

Mercury Pollution in Three Species of Waders from Shadegan Wetlands at the Head of the Persian Gulf

Abstract

Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection, and metal data from this region is needed. Mercury (Hg) in tissues of three waders (Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantous, Red-wattled Plover Hoplopterus indicus, and White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus) from Shadegan Wetlands is reported. Black-winged Stilt had higher Hg in feather (6.6 ± 0.6 μg/g dry weight), liver (3.5 ± 1 μg/g dry weight), kidney (4.5 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight) and muscle (1.2 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight) (not statistically significant). Differences in Hg among waders could have resulted from diverse feeding habitats and dissimilar foraging sites.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Al-Majid NB, Preston MR (2000) Factors influencing the total mercury and methyl mercury in the hair of the fishermen of Kuwait. Environ Pollut 109:239–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Burger J (1993) Metals in avian feathers: bioindicators of environmental pollution. Rev Environ Toxicol 5:203–311

    Google Scholar 

  3. Burger J, Gochfeld M (1991) Lead, mercury, and cadmium in feathers of tropical terns in Puerto Rico and Australia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 21:311–315

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Burger J, Gochfeld M (1993) Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of young egrets and herons from Hong kong and Szechan, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 25:322–327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Dam M, Hoydal K, Jensen JK (2004) Mercury in liver, eggs and feather of black guillemot Cepphus grylle faeroeensis in the Fareo Islands. Frooskaparrit 52:73–84

    Google Scholar 

  6. Eagles-Smith CA, Ackerman JT, Adelsbach TL, Takekawa JY, Miles AK, Keister RA (2008) Mercury correlations among six tissues for four waterbird species breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:2136–2153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Eisler R (1987) Mercury hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review. US Fish Wildl Serv Biol Rep 85(1.10):85

    Google Scholar 

  8. Evans MI (1994) Important bird areas in the Middle East. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK

    Google Scholar 

  9. Evans PR, Moon SJ (1981) Heavy metals in shore birds and their prey, in northeast England. In: Say PJ, Whitton BA (eds) Heavy metals in Northern England: environmental and biological aspects. University of Durham, Durham, pp 181–190

    Google Scholar 

  10. Evers DC, Burgess NM, Champoux L, Hoskins B, Major A, Goodale WM, Taylor RJ, Poppenga R, Daigle T (2005) Patterns and interpretation of mercury exposure in freshwater avian communities in Northeastern North America. Ecotoxicology 14:193–221

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Furness RW (1993) Birds as monitors of pollutants. In: Furness RW, Greenwood JJD (eds) Birds as monitors of environmental change. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, p 103

    Google Scholar 

  12. Furness RW, Thompson DR, Walsh PM (1990) Evidence from biological samples for historical changes in global metal pollution. In: Furness RW, Rainbow PS (eds) Heavy metal in the marine environment. CRC Press, New York, pp 219–225

    Google Scholar 

  13. Gochfeld M, Burger J (1987) Heavy metal concentrations in the liver of three duck species: influence of species and sex. Environ Pollut Ser A 45:1–15

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scan J Stat 6:65–70

    Google Scholar 

  15. Honda K, Min BY, Tatsukawa R (1986) Distribution of heavy metals and their age-related changes in the Eastern Great White Egret, Egretta alba modesta, in Korea. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 15:185–197

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Hui CA, Takekawa JY, Warnock SE (2001) Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California. Environ Monitor Assess 71:107–121

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hutton M (1981) Accumulation of heavy metals and selenium in three seabird species from the United Kingdom. Environ Pollut 26:129–145

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Lee DP, Honda K, Tatsukawa R, Won PO (1989) Distribution and residue level of mercury, cadmium and lead in Korean birds. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 43:550–555

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Sterry P, Cleave A, Clements A, Goodfellow P (2001) Birds of Britain and Europe. Norfolk House, London

    Google Scholar 

  20. Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi R, Esmaili-Sari A, Ghasempoury SM, Savabieasfahani M (2008) Mercury levels in selected tissues of three kingfisher species; Ceryle rudis, Alcedo atthis, and Halcyon smyrnensi, from Shadegan Marshes of Iran. Ecotoxicology 18:319–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Bahram Hassanzade Kiabi for insightful comments; and Morteza Davodi, Alireza Nikvarz, Mohamad-mehdi Hosseini and Mostafa Alahverdi for field assistance. This work was funded by Tarbiat Modares University of Iran.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Rasool Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi or Abbas Esmaili-Sari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R., Esmaili-Sari, A., Savabieasfahani, M. et al. Mercury Pollution in Three Species of Waders from Shadegan Wetlands at the Head of the Persian Gulf. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84, 326–330 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9933-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mercury
  • Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantous)
  • Red-wattled Plover (Hoplopterus indicus)
  • White-tailed Plover (Vanellus leucurus)