Skip to main content

Current-use and Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Biodegradable Fraction of Source Separated Household Waste, Compost, and Anaerobic Digestate

Abstract

Several current-use (≤80 ng g−1 dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤15 ng g−1 dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤18 ng g−1 dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digestate.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Brändli RC (2006) Organic pollutants in compost and digestate in Switzerland. Thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

  2. Brändli RC, Bucheli TD, Kupper T, Furrer R, Stadelmann FX, Tarradellas J (2005) Persistent organic pollutants in source-separated compost and its feedstock materials–a review of field studies. J Environ Qual 34:735–760

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Brändli RC, Bucheli TD, Kupper T, Mayer J, Stadelmann FX, Tarradellas J (2007a) Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants. Environ Pollut 148:520–528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Brändli RC, Bucheli TD, Kupper T, Furrer R, Stahel WA, Stadelmann FX, Tarradellas J (2007b) Organic pollutants in compost and digestate. Part 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and molecular markers. J Environ Monit 9:456–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Brändli RC, Kupper T, Bucheli TD, Zennegg M, Huber S, Ortelli D, Müller J, Schaffner C, Iozza S, Stadelmann FX, Tarradellas J (2007c) Organic pollutants in compost and digestate. Part 2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and–furans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances, pesticides, and other compounds. J Environ Monit 9:465–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Crommentuijn T, Sijm D, de Bruijn J, van Leeuwen K, van de Plassche E (2000) Maximum permissible and negligible concentrations for some organic substances and pesticides. J Environ Manag 58:297–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Eklind Y, Beck-Friis B, Bengtsson S, Ejlertsson J, Kirchmann H, Mathisen B, Nordkvist E, Sonesson U, Svensson BH, Torstensson L (1997) Chemical Characterization of Source-Separated Organic Household Wasts. Swedish J Agric Res 27:167–178

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Kylin H, Nordstrand E, Sjödin A, Jensen S (1996) Deternmination of chlorinated pesticides and PCB in pine needles–improved method thr the monitoring of airborne organochlorine pollutants. Fresenius J Anal Chem 356:62–69

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kylin H, Torstensson L, Ramberg Å, Volkova L, Sundin P (2007) Crop damage may occur after herbicide disposal in manure–a preliminary study. Acta Agric Scandinavica, Sect B, Soil Plant Sci 57:243–247

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Miltner E, Bary A, Cogger C (2003) Clopyralid and compost: formulation and mowing effects on herbicide content of grass clippings. Compost Sci Util 11:289–299

    Google Scholar 

  11. Nilsson M-L (2000) Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants in wastes. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala

  12. Nilsson M-L, Kylin H, Sundin P (2000) Major extractable Organic Compounds in the Biologically Degradable Fraction of Fresh, Composted and Anaerobically Digested Household Waste. Acta Agric Scandinavica, Sect B, Soil Plant Sci 50:57–65

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Specht W, Tillkes M (1985) Gas-chromatographische Bestimmung von Rückständen an Pflanzenbehandlungsmitteln nach Clean-up über Gelchromatographie und Mini-Kieselgel-Säulen-Chromatographie. Fresenius Z Anal Chem 322:445–455

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Stockholm Convention (2010) http://chm.pops.int/default.aspx. Accessed 15 June 2010

  15. Swedish Chemicals Agency (2010) http://www.kemi.se. Pesticide registry. Accessed 15 June 2010

  16. Swedish Food Administration (2010) http://www.slv.se/sv/Sjalvservice/Rapporter/Bekampningsmedel-/. Accessed 15 June 2010

  17. Wallman K (2000) Atrazine and dichlorobenzamide residues in the ground water of Uppsala – the source of the contamination. Dept Environ Assess, Swedish Univ Agric Sci, Report 2000:7, Uppsala

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was carried out within the research programme “Biological Waste in Circulation Between Urban and Rural Areas” funded by the Faculty of Agriculture, Horticulture and Landscape Planning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Henrik Kylin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hellström, A., Nilsson, ML. & Kylin, H. Current-use and Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Biodegradable Fraction of Source Separated Household Waste, Compost, and Anaerobic Digestate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86, 60–64 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0147-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Organic waste
  • Composting
  • Mesophilic digestion
  • Thermophilic digestion
  • Recirculation