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Contamination of Ground Water as a Consequence of Land Disposal of Dye Waste Mixed Sewage Effluents: A Case Study of Panipat District of Haryana, India

Abstract

Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 μg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11–0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

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Acknowledgments

Authors are grateful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for funding this research study through National Agricultural Technology Project “Use of urban and industrial effluent in agriculture” under Mission Mode. The authors are also grateful for the help and guidance rendered by Dr. N.K. Tyagi, Director, CSSRI, Karnal. Corresponding author is grateful to Dr. C. Viswanathan, for this critical comments and help during manuscript writing. Help rendered by Shri Madan Singh, Art Section, CSSRI, Karnal for art work is also gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to S. K. Dubey.

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Dubey, S.K., Yadav, R., Chaturvedi, R.K. et al. Contamination of Ground Water as a Consequence of Land Disposal of Dye Waste Mixed Sewage Effluents: A Case Study of Panipat District of Haryana, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85, 295–300 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0073-2

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Keywords

  • Waste water
  • Health hazard
  • Ground water contamination
  • Pathogenic contamination
  • Heavy metal
  • Dye industry effluents