Skip to main content

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water and Sediment in North West Persian Gulf, Iran

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was detected as isomer groups (congener numbers 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in the coastal water and sediment of four stations around Shadegan wetland protected area in the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf. Total PCB concentration range was 8–375 ng/L in water and 3.4–50.2 μg/g in sediment. Concentration of different congeners and chromatogram indicates that the source of PCB in this area can be Clophen A60; it used for long time in Iranian electronic industries. Other chlorinated hydrocarbons such as lindane, DDT and their metabolites were also present in the samples.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Albro PW, Haseman JK, Clemmer TA, Corbett BJ (1977) Identification of the individual polychlorinated biphenyls in a mixture of gas-liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 136:141–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Albro PW, Corbett JT, Schroeder JL (1981) Quantitative characterization of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors® 1248, 1254 and 1260) by gas chromatography using capillary columns. J Chromatogr 205:103–111

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Ayris S, Marco Currado G, Smith D, Harrad S (1997) GC/MS procedures for the determination of PCBs in environmental matrices. Chemosphere 35:905–917

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Blanco-Penedo I, López-Alonso M, Miranda M, Benedito JL, Shore RF (2008) Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl in calves from north-west Spain. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81:583–587

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Csuros M (1997) Environmental sampling and analysis. Lewis, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  6. Duinker JC, Hillebrand MTJ (1983) Characterization of PCB components in Clophen formulations by capillary GC-MS and GC-ECD techniques. Environ Sci Technol 17:449–456

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Erickson MD (1997) Analytical chemistry of PCB. Lewis, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  8. Fu S, Cheng H, Liu Y, Zhang L, Yang Z, Li K, Xia X, Xu X (2008) Polychlorinated biphenyls residues in the soil in Linfen, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81:594–598

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Hu G-J, Chen S-L, Zhao Y-G, Sun C, Li J, Wang H (2009) Persistent toxic substances in agricultural soils of Lishui county, Jiangsu province, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82:48–54

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Kannan N, Tanabe S, Wakimoto T, Trtsukawa R (1987) Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Aroclor and Kanechlor mixtures. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 70:451–454

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kimbrough RD (1980) Environmental pollution of air, water and soil. In: Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins and related products. Elsevier/North-Holland/Biomedical Press, New York, pp 77–80

  12. Li K, Yin HW, Zheng MH, Rong ZY, Jia LJ (2007) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like biphenyls in sediments from the Suzhou creek, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:432–436

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Loveridge AR, Bishop CA, Elliott JE, Kennedy CJ (2007) Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulated in green frogs, Rana clamitans, from the lower Fraser valley, British Columbia, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:315–318

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. NRC (1979) Polychlorinated biphenyls. National Research council, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  15. Strachan WM, Eisenreich SJ (1990) Mass balance accounting of chemicals in the Great Lakes. In: Kurtz DA (ed) Long range transport of pesticides. Lewis, Boca Raton Chap. 19

    Google Scholar 

  16. US EPA (1991) Test method for evaluating of solid waste – SW 846. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati

    Google Scholar 

  17. Verschueren K (1996) Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals, 3rd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York

    Google Scholar 

  18. WHO (1976) Polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls environmental health criteria 2. World Heath Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. A. Zahed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zahed, M.A., Nabi Bidhendi, G., Pardakhti, A. et al. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water and Sediment in North West Persian Gulf, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 899 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9874-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Polychlorinated biphenyl
  • Clophen
  • Persian Gulf
  • Iran