Skip to main content

High Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Found in Water and Sediments of Car Wash and Kisat Areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya

Abstract

Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 μg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 μg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. ATSDR (1995) Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR) toxicological profile for polycyclic aroatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta

    Google Scholar 

  2. Baumard P, Budzinski H, Michon Q, Garrigues P, Burgeot T, Bellocq J (1998) Origin and bioavailability of PAHs in the mediterranean sea from mussel and sediment records. Estuar Coast Shelf S 47:77–90

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Christopher DS, William RC, Kristine B, Quinlan K, Reimer R (1995) Methodology for the determination of priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments. Chemosphere 9:4143–4155

    Google Scholar 

  4. David N, Nancy L (1995) Identification of pollution sources in the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria catchment area. A Kenya-Belgiam joint project in fresh water ecology. National Environmental Management Agency, Nairobi

    Google Scholar 

  5. Gogou A, Stratigakis N, Kanakidou M, Stephanou EG (1996) Organic aerosols in Eastern Mediterranean: components source reconciliation by using molecular markers and atmospheric back trajectories. Org Geochem 25:79–96

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Hallet DJ, Brecher RW (1984) Toxic contaminants in the Great Lakes. Willey, New York

    Google Scholar 

  7. Heidelberger C (1976) In: Freudenthal R, Jones PW (eds) Carcinogenesis—a comprehensive survey, vol 1. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: chemistry, metabolism and carcinogenesis. Raven Press, New York

  8. Hostettler FD, Pereira WE, Kvenvolden KA, Van Green A, Luoma SN, Fuller CC, Anima R (1999) A record of hydrocarbon input to San Francisco Bay as traced by biomarker profiles in surface sediment and sediment core. Mar Chem 64:115–127

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. IARC (1983) International agency for research on cancer, IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to human. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part I chemical environmental and experimental data. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  10. Ko FC, Baker JE (1995) Partitioning of Hydrophobic organic contaminants to resuspended sediments and planktons in the mesahaline Chesapeake Bay. Mar Chem 49:171–188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kwach OB (2008) Assessment of cyclic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon distribution in Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya. M.Sc. thesis, Maseno University

  12. Li G, Xia X, Yang Z, Wang R, Voulvoulis N (2006) Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, China. Environ Pollut 144:985–993

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. McVeety BD, Hites RA (1988) Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: a mass balance approach. Atmos Environ 22:511–536

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Readman JW, Mantoura RFC, Rhead MM (1984) The Physico-chemical specification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic system. Anal Chem 319:126–138

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. SEPA, State Environmental Protection Administration of China (2002) Monitoring and analytical method on water and waste water, 4th edn. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  16. UNEP, United Nations Environmental Programme (1992) Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. Reference methods for marine pollution studies no. 20. Monaco

  17. Wakeham SG (1996) Aliphatic and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in Black Sea sediments. Mar Chem 53:187–195

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Wakeham SG, Farrington JW (1980) Hydrocarbons in contemporary aquatic sediments. In: Petrakis C, Weiss FT (eds) Petroleum in the marine environment. ACS advances in chemistry series no. 185. American Chemical Society, Washington DC

  19. WHO (1998) World Health Organization, International programme on chemical safety. Environmental health criteria 202: selected non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. WHO, Geneva

  20. Witt G (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments of the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 31:237–246

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Yunker MB, Snowdon LR, Macdoland RW, Smith JN, Fowler MG, Skibo DN, McLaughlin FA, Danyushevskaya AI, Petrova VI, Ivanov GI (1996) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition and potential sources for sediment samples from the Beaufort and Barents Seas. Environ Sci Technol 30:1310–1320

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Department of Chemistry, Maseno University in Kenya. We acknowledge Prof Dr. K.-W. Schramm, Helmholtz Zentrum, Munich for PAH standards and the Department of Physical Sciences, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology-Kenya, for assistance during laboratory analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. O. Lalah.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kwach, B.O., Lalah, J.O. High Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Found in Water and Sediments of Car Wash and Kisat Areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 727 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9859-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • PAHs
  • Sediment
  • Kisat
  • Car Wash
  • Lake Victoria