Skip to main content

Impact of N,N-Dimethylformamide from Domestic Effluents on River Waters


The impacts of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) from domestic effluents on rivers were evaluated. The hourly DMF concentrations in the inflows (0.21–0.52 μg/L in mean) and the outflows (0.18–0.62 μg/L in mean) of two sewage treatment plants did not show any characteristic variations, and DMF was not removed at both plants. The monthly variations of DMF in the outflows of four sewage treatment plants (0.16–0.62 μg/L in mean) and three rivers (0.06–0.11 μg/L in mean) into which the outflows of the plants were discharged did not show any significant variations. The domestic DMF load per person was calculated to be 0.25 mg/d/person. The percent DMF loads of domestic effluents in the rivers were estimated to be below (8%–32%).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Ibaraki T, Mitobe H, Kawata K, Sakai M (1999) Determination of N,N-dimethylformamide in water and sediment by solid phase extraction-GC/MS. J Environ Chem 9:407–410

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Kadokami K, Sato K, Koga M (1993) Concentrations of 14 hydrophilic chemicals in natural waters at Kitakyushu area. J Environ Chem 3:15–23

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Kawata K, Ibaraki T, Tanabe A, Yagoh H, Shinoda A, Suzuki H, Yasuhara A (2001) Gas chromatography–mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic compounds in environmental water by solid-phase extraction with activated carbon fiber felt. J Chromatogr A 911:75–83

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Kawata K, Ibaraki T, Tanabe A, Yasuhara A (2003) Distribution of 1,4-dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide in river water from Niigata, Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70:876–882

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Okamoto Y, Ohashi N, Sasano H (1992) Determination of trace N,N-dimethylformamide in environmental samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Environ Chem 2:45–51

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Tanabe A, Tsuchida Y, Ibaraki T, Kawata K (2006) Impact of 1,4-dioxane from domestic effluent on the Agano and Shinano Rivers, Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 76:44–51

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Yan X, Guoxing S, Yu D (2002) Effect of N,N-dimethylformamide used as organic solvent on two species of green algae Chlorella. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68:592–599

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Yasuhara A, Uno Y, Nakasugi O, Hosomi M (1992) Analysis of chemical components in landfill leachate. Part 2. J Environ Chem 2:541–546

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kuniaki Kawata.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tanabe, A., Kawata, K. Impact of N,N-Dimethylformamide from Domestic Effluents on River Waters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 841 (2009).

Download citation


  • Dimethylformamide
  • River
  • Sewage treatment plant
  • Removal rate
  • Load