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Microcystin Production by Microcystis aeruginosa Exposed to Phytoplanktivorous and Omnivorous Fish at Different Kairomone Concentrations


We investigated microcystin (MC) production by three Microcystis aeruginosa strains in response to different kairomone concentrations (indirect exposure: 0%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Carassius gibelio langsdorfi. The MC production was significantly different among control and three kairomone treatment levels. MC production was higher with increasing concentration of kairomones and the peak intracellular and extracellular MC contents showed clear dose-dependent response (p < 0.05). This study provides the first indirect evidence of increased MC production of M. aeruginosa in response to increasing kairomone concentrations released by phytoplanktivorous and omnivorous fish.

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This study was supported by the Ministry of Environment (Long-Term Ecological Research 2008), Republic of Korea.

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Correspondence to Min-Ho Jang.

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Ha, K., Takamura, N. & Jang, MH. Microcystin Production by Microcystis aeruginosa Exposed to Phytoplanktivorous and Omnivorous Fish at Different Kairomone Concentrations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 761 (2009).

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  • Microcystin
  • Kairomone
  • Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
  • Carassius gibelio langsdorfi