Skip to main content

Evolution of Potential Ecological Impacts of the Bottom Sediment from the Gulf of Gemlik; Marmara Sea, Turkey

Abstract

The eastern and southern coasts of the Gulf of Gemlik, a resort in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, are under the influence of rapid ecotourism development, direct domestic and industrial discharges via rivers and outfalls, surface run-off, drainage from ports and shipping. According to sediment quality criteria in use around the world, sediment quality in the gulf shows a broad spectrum. It is more related by direct input, rather than by the type of sediment, and excluding inner port and southern coasts, it does not exert adverse biological effects yet. The total PAH concentrations range from 51 to 13,482 ng/g dry weight with the mean value of 1,850 ng/g dry weight (n = 61). The elevated values of the total toxic Benzo[a]pyrene equivalency (TEQcarc), with a maximum of 1,838 ng/g dry weight, were found at the inner harbor of Gemlik, possibly posing hazard to benthic organisms. Among the different PAHs, the contribution to the total TEQcarc decreased as the following order: Benzo[a]pyrene (43.6%) > Benzo[k]fluoranthene (36.0%) > Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (35.1%) > Benzo[b]fluoranthene (20.0%) > Chrysene + Triphenylene (18.9%) > Benzo[a]anthracene (12.5%).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Adams WJ, Kimerle RA, Barnett JW Jr (1992) Sediment quality and aquatic life assessment. Environ Sci Technol 26(10):1864–1875. doi:10.1021/es00034a001

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Akal Solmaz SK, Yonar T, Üstün GE (2000) Gemlik Körfezinin karasal kaynaklı kirlilik envanteri. In: Öztürk B, Kadıoğlu M, Öztürk H (eds), Marmara Denizi 2000 Sempozyumu, TÜDAV, 11–12 November 2000, Istanbul (in Turkish), 5:513–519

  3. Bolton HS, Breteler RJ, Vigon BW, Scanlon JA, Clark SL (1985) National perspective on sediment quality. Prepared by Battelle Institute, Washington, DC for US EPA Contract No. 68-01-6986. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC

  4. Eisler R (1987) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report No 85(1.11), Washington DC

  5. Long ER, Macdonald DD, Smith SL, Calder FD (1995) Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuary sediments. Environ Manage 19(1):81–97. doi:10.1007/BF02472006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Lyman WJ, Glazer AE, Ong JH, Coons SF (1987) An overview of sediment quality in the United States. Final Report. Contract No. 68-01-6951, Task 20. PB88-251384. US EPA, Washington, DC p 204

  7. Meriç E, Avşar N, Nazik A, Alpar B, Yökeş B, Barut İF, Ünlü S (2005) Gemlik Körfezi yüzey çökellerinin foraminifer, ostrakod ve mollusk faunası, foraminifer kavkılarında gözlenen morfolojik anomaliler ile bölgenin sedimentolojik, hidrokimyasal ve biokimyasal özellikleri. MTA Dergisi 131:21–48 (in Turkish)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL (2004) Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain. Environ Pollut 132:1–11. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.04.003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Neff JM (1979) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources, fates and biological effects. Applied Science Publishers, England

    Google Scholar 

  10. Neff JM (2002) Bioaccumulation in marine organisms: effect of contaminants from oil well produced water. Elsevier, Amsterdam 452

    Google Scholar 

  11. Peters CA, Knightes CD, Brown DG (1999) Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment. Environ Sci Technol 33(24):4499–4507. doi:10.1021/es981203e

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Qiao M, Wang C, Huang S, Wang D, Wang Z (2006) Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environ Int 32:28–33. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2005.04.005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Sims RC, Overcash MR (1983) Fate of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNAs) in soil-plant systems. Residue Rev 88:1–68

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Ünlü S, Alpar B (2006) Distribution and sources of hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Gemlik Bay (Marmara Sea, Turkey). Chem 64:764–777

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ünlü S, Alpar B, Aydin S, Akbulak C, Balkis N, Barut I, Meriç E, Aksu A, Kirbasoglu Ç (2006) Anthropogenic pollution in sediments from the Gulf of Gemlik (Marmara Sea, Turkey); cause-result relationship. Fresenius Environ Bull 15(12a):1521–1560

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ünlü S, Topçuoğlu S, Alpar B, Kirbasoğlu C, Yilmaz YZ (2008) Heavy metal pollution in surface sediment and mussel samples in the Gulf of Gemlik. Environ Monit Assess 144(1–3):169–178. doi:10.1007/s10661-007-9986-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Yildiz M, Uçar I, Özay E, Balgat I (2003) Monthly water regimes for the period of 1935–2000. Publications of General Directorate of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE), No: 95-25, ISBN 975-7566, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish)

Download references

Acknowledgments

The present work has been supported by the Research Fund of Istanbul University; the projects UDP-2624, YFK-186 and BYP-1894.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Selma Ünlü.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ünlü, S., Alpar, B. Evolution of Potential Ecological Impacts of the Bottom Sediment from the Gulf of Gemlik; Marmara Sea, Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 903 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9803-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Pollution
  • Contaminated sediment
  • Sediment toxicity
  • Sediment quality guidelines
  • TEQcarc
  • Gulf of Gemlik