Skip to main content

Seasonal Change in the Atmospheric Concentration of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract

We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 ± 2.83 and 15.71 ± 8.21 ng m−3, respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = −0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Andronache C (2003) Estimated variability of below-cloud aerosol removal by rainfall for observed aerosol size distribution. Atmos Chem Phys 3:131–143

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Asian Development Bank (2004) Key indicators of developing Asian and Pacific countries 2004

  3. Fang GC, Wu YS, Chang CN, Ho TT (2006) A study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations and source identifications by methods of diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis at Taichung chemical harbor near Taiwan Strait. Chemosphere 64:1233–1242. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.031

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Greenfield S (1957) Rain scavenging of radioactive particulate matter from the atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 14:115–125. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0115:RSORPM>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hien TT, Nam PP, Sadanaga Y, Kameda T, Takenaka N, Bandow H (2007a) Comparison of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and Osaka, Japan, during 2005–2006. Sci Total Environ 382:70–80. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.04.013

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Hien TT, Thanh LT, Kameda T, Takenaka N, Bandow H (2007b) Distributions of characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with particle size in urban aerosols at the roadside in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Atmos Environ 41:1575–1586. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.045

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Kishida M, Imamura K, Takenaka N, Maeda Y, Viet PH, Bandow H (2008) Concentrations of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter and the gaseous phase at roadside sites in Hanoi, Vietnam. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81:174–179. doi:10.1007/s00128-008-9450-5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Kishida M, Mio C, Imamura K, Kondo A, Kaga A, Shrestha ML, Takenaka N, Maeda Y, Sapkota B, Fujimori K, Shibutani Y, Bandow H (2009) Temporal variation of atmospheric polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in PM10 from Kathmandu Valley and their gas-particle concentrations in winter. Int J Environ Anal Chem 89:67–82. doi:10.1080/03067310802526985

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Lan TTN, Nishimura R, Tsujino Y, Imamura K, Warashina M, Hoang NT, Maeda Y (2004) Atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, nitric acid, formic and acetic acid in the south of Vietnam measured by the passive sampling method. Anal Sci 20:213–217. doi:10.2116/analsci.20.213

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Lao RC, Thomas RS, Oja H, Dubois L (1973) Application of a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer data processor combination to the analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of airborne pollutant. Anal Chem 45:908–915. doi:10.1021/ac60328a006

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Lu GN, Dang Z, Tao XQ, Yang C, Yi XY (2007) Modeling and prediction of photolysis half-lives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aerosols by quantum chemical descriptors. Sci Total Environ 373:289–296. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.045

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Oda J, Nishikawa M, Huang Y, Quan H (2003) Profiling characteristics of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing, Yinchuan and Chengdu, China. J Environ Chem 13:653–671

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Ohura T, Amagai T, Sugiyama T, Fusaya M, Matsushita H (2004) Characteristics of particle matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air in two cities in Shizuoka, Japan. Atmos Environ 38:2045–2054. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.038

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Park JS, Wade TL, Sweet S (2001) Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Atmos Environ 35:3241–3249. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00080-2

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Valerio F, Lazzarotto A (1985) Photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in real and laboratory conditions. Int J Environ Anal Chem 23:135–151. doi:10.1080/03067318508076440

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Yamasaki H, Kuwata K, Miyamoto H (1982) Effects of ambient temperature on aspects of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 16:189–194. doi:10.1021/es00098a003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Zielinska B, Sagebiel J, Arnott WP, Rogers CF, Kelly KE, Wagner DA, Lighty JS, Sarofim AF, Palmer G (2004) Phase and size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions. Environ Sci Technol 38:2557–2567. doi:10.1021/es030518d

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank the staff of the General Statistics Office, Government of Vietnam, for providing meteorological data for HCMC. We also thank Dr. T. Kameda, Kanazawa University, for offering useful advice.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Masao Kishida.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kishida, M., Mio, C., Fujimori, K. et al. Seasonal Change in the Atmospheric Concentration of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 747–751 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9779-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Ho Chi Minh City
  • Particulate PAHs
  • Dry season
  • Photolytic degradation