Dramatic changes in trihalomethanes of tap water caused by decreasing the chlorine dose from to break-point to zero at a pre-chlorination could be found during several years from starting the advanced treatment in Osaka Prefectural water utilities (from 1998 to 2002). In 1998 (break-point chlorination), chloroform was predominant (an average of 14.3 μg/L) and bromodichloromethane (5.96 μg/L), dibromochloromethane (4.19 μg/L) and bromoform (1.06 μg/L) were in the decreasing order. In contrast, in 1999 (chloramination), dibromochloromethane and bromodichloromethane were abundant trihalomethanes (6.61 and 5.72 μg/L) and followed by chloroform (4.14 μg/L) and bromoform (1.41 μg/L). Trihalomethane distribution in 2002 (non-chlorination) was almost the same as that in 1999.
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We are pleased to acknowledge Ms. Yukie KAMIMOTO, Tomoko HARADA (49th graduate), Keiko OKOUCHI and Keiko TATSUKA (50th graduate), students of Osaka City Nutrition College, for their support for sample collection and analysis.
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Yamamoto, K., Mori, Y. Episodic Trihalomethane Species and Levels in Tap Water at a Start of Operation of Advanced Treatment in Osaka Prefectural Water Supplies. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 674 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9776-7
- Advanced water treatment
- Trihalometane distribution