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Behavior of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Johkasou Improved Septic Tank in Japan


The behavior of estrogens (estrone: E1, 17β-estradiol: E2, estriol: E3 and ethinylestradiol: EE2) and an androgen (testosterone) in the water and sludge from Johkasou in Japan was investigated. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3 and testosterone in water samples from the Johkasou were 33–500, N.D. ~150, N.D. ~6,700 and 500 ng/L, respectively. In sludge samples, the concentrations of E1, E2, E3, and testostrerone were N.D. ~39, N.D. ~6.7, N.D. ~60 and 0.2–9.0 ng/L, respectively. EE2 was not detected in all samples. The removal rates of E1, E2, E3 and testosterone in Johkasou were 45%–91%, 66%–100%, 90%–100%, and about 90%, respectively.

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The authors thank Associate Professor Jay Melton for his reviewing this paper for English style and usage. Any remaining errors are our responsibility.

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Correspondence to R. Shinohara.

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Nakagawa, S., Matsuo, H., Motoyama, M. et al. Behavior of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Johkasou Improved Septic Tank in Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83, 328–333 (2009).

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  • Estrogen
  • Androgen
  • EDCs
  • Johkasou